Ancient Peru was the seat of several prominent Andean civilizations, most notably that of the Incas whose empire was captured by Spanish conquistadors in 1533. Peruvian independence was declared in 1821, and remaining Spanish forces were defeated in 1824. After a dozen years of military rule, Peru returned to democratic leadership in 1980, but experienced economic problems and the growth of a violent insurgency. President Alberto FUJIMORI’s election in 1990 ushered in a decade that saw a dramatic turnaround in the economy and significant progress in curtailing guerrilla activity. Nevertheless, the president’s increasing reliance on authoritarian measures and an economic slump in the late 1990s generated mounting dissatisfaction with his regime, which led to his resignation in 2000. A caretaker government oversaw new elections in the spring of 2001, which installed Alejandro TOLEDO Manrique as the new head of government – Peru’s first democratically elected president of indigenous ethnicity. The presidential election of 2006 saw the return of Alan GARCIA Perez who, after a disappointing presidential term from 1985 to 1990, oversaw a robust economic rebound. In June 2011, former army officer Ollanta HUMALA Tasso was elected president, defeating Keiko FUJIMORI Higuchi, the daughter of Alberto FUJIMORI. Since his election, HUMALA has carried on the sound, market-oriented economic policies of the three preceding administrations.




Western South America, bordering the South Pacific Ocean, between Chile and Ecuador

Geographic coordinates:

10 00 S, 76 00 W

Map references:

South America


total:  1,285,216sq km

land:  1,279,996 sq km

water:  5,220 sq km

Area – comparative:

slightly smaller than Alaska

Land boundaries:

total: 7,461 km

border countries:  Bolivia 1,075 km, Brazil 2,995 km, Chile 171 km, Colombia 1,800 km, Ecuador 1,420 km


2,414 km

Maritime claims:

continental shelf:  200 NM  

territorial sea:  200 NM


varies from tropical in east to dry desert in west; temperate to frigid in Andes


western coastal plain (costa), high and rugged Andes in center (sierra), eastern lowland jungle of Amazon Basin (selva)

Elevation extremes:

lowest point:  Pacific Ocean 0 m

highest point:  Nevado Huascaran 6,768 m

Natural resources:

copper, silver, gold, petroleum, timber, fish, iron ore, coal, phosphate, potash, hydropower, natural gas

Land use:

arable land: 2.84%

permanent crops:  0.66%

other:  96.5% (2011)

Irrigated land:

11,960 sq km (2003)

Natural hazards:

earthquakes, tsunamis, flooding, landslides, mild volcanic activity
volcanism: volcanic activity in the Andes Mountains; Ubinas (elev. 5,672 m), which last erupted in 2009, is the country’s most active volcano; other historically active volcanoes include El Misti, Huaynaputina, Sabancaya, and Yucamane

Environment – current issues:

deforestation (some the result of illegal logging); overgrazing of the slopes of the costa and sierra leading to soil erosion; desertification; air pollution in Lima; pollution of rivers and coastal waters from municipal and mining wastes

Environment – international agreements:

party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography – note:

shares control of Lago Titicaca, world’s highest navigable lake, with Bolivia; a remote slope of Nevado Mismi, a 5,316 m peak, is the ultimate source of the Amazon River




30,147,935 (July 2014 est.)

Age structure:

0-14 years: 27.3% (male 4,184,330/female 4,040,096)

15-24 years: 19.2% (male 2,894,168/female 2,889,409)
25-54 years: 39.4% (male 5,715,542/female 6,161,540)
55-64 years: 7.3% (male 1,071,688/female 1,125,100)
65 years and over: 6.7% (male 979,854/female 1,086,208) (2014 est.)

Population growth rate:

0.99% (2014 est.)

Birth rate:

18.57 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)

Death rate:

5.99 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)

Net migration rate:

-2.69 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)

Sex ratio:

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.93 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.9 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2014 est.)

Infant mortality rate:

total: 20.21 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:

total population:  72.23 years

male:  71.23 years

female:  75.33 years (2014 est.)

Total fertility rate:

2.22 children born/woman (2014 est.)

HIV/AIDS – adult prevalence rate:

0.4% (2012 est.)

HIV/AIDS – people living with HIV/AIDS:

75,500 (2012 est.)

HIV/AIDS – deaths:

4,100 (2012 est.)


noun:  Peruvian(s)

adjective:  Peruvian

Ethnic groups:

Amerindian 45%, mestizo (mixed Amerindian and white) 37%, white 15%, black, Japanese, Chinese, and other 3%


Roman Catholic 81.3%, Evangelical 12.5%, other 3.3%, none 2.9% (2007 est.)


Spanish (official) 84.1%, Quechua (official) 13%, Aymara (official) 1.7%, Ashaninka 0.3%, other native languages (includes a large number of minor Amazonian languages) 0.7%, other (includes foreign languages and sign language) 0.2% (2007 est.)


definition:  age 15 and over can read and write

total population:  89.6%

male:  94.9%

female:  84.6% (2007 est.)



Country name:

conventional long form:  Republic of Peru

conventional short form:  Peru

local long form:  República del Perú

local short form:  Perú

Government type:

constitutional republic



Administrative divisions:

25 regions (regiones, singular – region) and 1 province* (provincia); Amazonas, Ancash, Apurimac, Arequipa, Ayacucho, Cajamarca, Callao, Cusco, Huancavelica, Huanuco, Ica, Junin, La Libertad, Lambayeque, Lima, Lima*, Loreto, Madre de Dios, Moquegua, Pasco, Piura, Puno, San Martin, Tacna, Tumbes, Ucayali

note: Callao, the largest port in Peru, is also referred to as a constitutional province, the only province of the the Callao region


28 July 1821 (from Spain)

National holiday:

Independence Day, 28 July (1821)


several previous; latest promulgated 29 December 1993, enacted 31 December 1993; amended several times, last in 2009 (2009

Legal system:

civil law system


18 years of age; universal and compulsory until the age of 70

Executive branch:

chief of state: President Ollanta HUMALA Tasso (since 28 July 2011); First Vice President Marisol ESPINOZA Cruz (since 28 July 2011); Second Vice President (vacant); note – the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Ollanta HUMALA Tasso (since 28 July 2011); First Vice President Marisol ESPINOZA Cruz (since 28 July 2011); Second Vice President (vacant)
note: Prime Minister Rene CORNEJO (since 24 February 2014) does not exercise executive power; this power rests with the president
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for nonconsecutive reelection); presidential election last held on 10 April 2011 with run-off election held on 6 June 2011 (next to be held in April 2016)
election results: Ollanta HUMALA Tasso elected president; percent of vote – Ollanta HUMALA Tasso 51.5%, Keiko FUJIMORI Higuchi 48.5%

Legislative branch:

unicameral Congress of the Republic of Peru or Congreso de la Republica del Peru (130 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)

elections: last held on 10 April 2011 with run-off election on 6 June 2011 (next to be held in April 2016)
election results: percent of vote by party – Gana Peru 25.3%, Fuerza 2011 23%, PP 14.8%, Alliance for Great Change 14.4%, National Solidarity 10.2%, Peruvian Aprista Party 6.4%, other 5.9%; seats by party – Gana Peru 47, Fuerza 2011 37, PP 21, Alliance for Great Change 12, National Solidarity 9, Peruvian Aprista Party 4; note – as of 10 March 2014, the composition of the legislature is as follows: seats by bloc party – Gana Peru 43, Fuerza Popular (formerly Fuerza 2011) 36, PP 10, Accion Popular-Frente Amplio 10, National Solidarity 9, Union Regional 8, Partido Popular Cristiano-Alianza Para el Progreso 7, Concertacion Parlamentaria 6, Independent 1; note – defections by members of the National Assembly are commonplace, resulting in the formation of new blocs and frequent changes in the numbers of seats held by the various blocs

Judicial branch:

highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of 16 judges and divided into civil, criminal, and constitutional-social sectors)

judge selection and term of office: justices proposed by the National Council of the Judiciary or National Judicial Council (a 7-member independent body), nominated by the president, and confirmed by the Congress (all appointments reviewed by the Council every 7 years; justices appointed for life or until age 70
subordinate courts: Court of Constitutional Guarantees; Superior Courts or Cortes Superiores; specialized civil, criminal, and mixed courts; two types of peace courts in which professional judges and selected members of the local communities preside

Political parties and leaders:

Alliance for Progress (Alianza para el Progreso) or APP [Cesar ACUNA Peralta]

Fuerza Popular (formerly Fuerza 2011) [Keiko FUJIMORI Higuchi]
National Solidarity (Solidaridad Nacional) or SN [Luis CASTANEDA Lossio]
Peru Posible or PP (a coalition of Accion Popular and Somos Peru) [Alejandro TOLEDO Manrique]
Peruvian Aprista Party (Partido Aprista Peruano) or PAP [Alan GARCIA Perez] (also referred to by its original name Alianza Popular Revolucionaria Americana or APRA)
Peruvian Nationalist Party [Nadine HEREDIA Alarcon]
Popular Christian Party (Partido Popular Cristiano) or PPC [Lourdes FLORES Nano]
Wide Front (Frente Amplio), a coalition of left-of-center parties including Tierra y Libertad [Marco ARANA Zegarra], Ciudadanos por el Gran Cambio [Salomon LERNER Ghitis], and Fuerza Social [Susana VILLARAN de la Puente]

Political pressure groups and leaders:

General Workers Confederation of Peru (Confederacion General de Trabajadores del Peru) or CGTP [Mario HUAMAN]
Shining Path (Sendero Luminoso) or SL [Abimael GUZMAN Reynoso (imprisoned), Victor QUISPE Palomino (top leader at-large)] (leftist guerrilla group)

International organization participation:


Diplomatic representation in the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Harold Winston FORSYTH Mejia (since 29 August 2011)

chancery: 1700 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 833-9860 through 9869
FAX: [1] (202) 659-8124
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Dallas, Denver, Hartford (CT), Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Paterson (NJ), San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d’Affaires Michael J. Fitzpatrick (since 20 September 2013)
embassy: Avenida La Encalada, Cuadra 17 s/n, Surco, Lima 33
mailing address: P. O. Box 1995, Lima 1; American Embassy (Lima), APO AA 34031-5000
telephone: [51] (1) 618-2000
FAX: [51] (1) 618-2397

Flag description:

three equal, vertical bands of red (hoist side), white, and red with the coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms features a shield bearing a llama, cinchona tree (the source of quinine), and a yellow cornucopia spilling out gold coins, all framed by a green wreath



Economy – overview:

Peru’s economy reflects its varied topography – an arid lowland coastal region, the central high sierra of the Andes, the dense forest of the Amazon, with tropical lands bordering Colombia and Brazil. A wide range of important mineral resources are found in the mountainous and coastal areas, and Peru’s coastal waters provide excellent fishing grounds. Peru is the world’s second largest producer of silver and third largest producer of copper. The Peruvian economy has been growing by an average of 5.6% for the past five years with a stable exchange rate and low inflation, which in 2013 was just below the upper limit of the Central Bank target range of 1 to 3%. For the last three years, this growth was due partly to high international prices for Peru’s metals and minerals exports, which account for almost 60% of the country’s total exports. Despite Peru’s strong macroeconomic performance, dependence on minerals and metals exports and imported foodstuffs makes the economy vulnerable to fluctuations in world prices. Peru’s rapid expansion coupled with cash transfers and other programs have helped to reduce the national poverty rate by 28 percentage points since 2002, but inequality persists and continues to pose a challenge for the Ollanta HUMALA administration, which has championed a policy of social inclusion and a more equitable distribution of income. Poor infrastructure hinders the spread of growth to Peru’s non-coastal areas. Peru’s free trade policy has continued under the HUMALA administration; since 2006, Peru has signed trade deals with the US, Canada, Singapore, China, Korea, Mexico, Japan, the EU, the European Free Trade Association, Chile, Thailand, Costa Rica, Panama, Venezuela, concluded negotiations with Guatemala, and begun trade talks with Honduras and El Salvador, Turkey and the Trans-Pacific Partnership. Peru also has signed a trade pact with Chile, Colombia, and Mexico, called the Pacific Alliance, that rivals Mercosur. Since the US-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement entered into force in February 2009, total trade between Peru and the United States has doubled. Although Peru has continued to attract foreign investment, political activism and protests are hampering development of some projects related to natural resource extraction


purchasing power parity – $344 billion (2013 est.)

GDP – real growth rate:

5.1% (2013 est.)

GDP – per capita:

purchasing power parity – $11,100 (2013 est.)

GDP – composition by sector:

agriculture:  6.2%

industry:  37.5%

services:  56.3% (2013 est.)

Population below poverty line:

25.8% (2012 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:

lowest 10%:  1.4%

highest 10%:  36.1% (2010 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):

2.9% (2013 est.)

Labor force:

16.16 million

Labor force – by occupation:

agriculture: 25.8%

industry: 17.4%
services: 56.8% (2011)

Unemployment rate:

3.6% (2012 est.)


revenues: $60.95 billion

expenditures: $58.91 billion (2013 est.)


mining and refining of minerals; steel, metal fabrication; petroleum extraction and refining, natural gas and natural gas liquefaction; fishing and fish processing, cement, glass, textiles, clothing, food processing, beer, soft drinks, rubber, machinery, electrical machinery, chemicals, furniture 

Industrial production growth rate:

5% (2013 est.)

Electricity – production:

38.4 billion kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity – production by source:

60.1% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)

hydro:  39.9% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)

nuclear:  0% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)

other:  0% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)

Electricity – consumption:

34.25 billion kWh (2011 est.)

Electricity – exports:

112 million kWh (2010 est.)

Electricity – imports:

0 kWh (2012 est.)

Agriculture – products:

asparagus, coffee, cocoa, cotton, sugarcane, rice, potatoes, corn, plantains, grapes, oranges, pineapples, guavas, bananas, apples, lemons, pears, coca, tomatoes, mangoes, barley, medicinal plants, palm oil, marigold, onion, wheat, dry beans; poultry, beef, pork, dairy products; guinea pigs; fish


$41.48 billion (2013 est.)

Exports – commodities:

fish copper, gold, lead, zinc, tin, iron ore, molybdenum, silver; crude petroleum and petroleum products, natural gas; coffee, asparagus and other vegetables, fruit, apparel and textiles, fishmeal, fish, chemicals, fabricated metal products and machinery, alloys

Exports – partners:

China 19.9%, US 15.7%, Canada 9.5%, Japan 6.6%, Spain 5.2%, Chile 4.9% (2012)


$42.13 billion (2013 est.)

Imports – commodities:

petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, plastics, machinery, vehicles, color TV sets, power shovels, front-end loaders, telephones and telecommunication equipment, iron and steel, wheat, corn, soybean products, paper, cotton, vaccines and medicines 

Imports – partners:

US 24.6%, China 14%, Brazil 6.4%, Argentina 5%, Chile 4.8%, Colombia 4.2%, Ecuador 4.1%, Mexico 4% (2012)

Debt – external:

$50.15 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

Economic aid – recipient:

Stock of direct foreign investment -at home:
$76.57 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment – abroad:
$3.165 billion (31 December 2013 est.)


nuevo sol (PEN)

Currency code:


Exchange rates:

nuevo sol per US dollar –

2.699 (2013 est.)

2.6376 (2012 est.)
2.8251 (2010 est.)
3.0115 (2009)
2.91 (2008)

Fiscal year:

calendar year



Telephones – main lines in use:

3.42 million (2012)

Telephones – mobile cellular:

29.4 million (2012)

Telephone system:

general assessment: adequate for most requirements; nationwide microwave radio relay system and a domestic satellite system with 12 earth stations

domestic: fixed-line teledensity is only about 12 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity, spurred by competition among multiple providers, exceeds 100 telephones per 100 persons
international: country code – 51; the South America-1 (SAM-1) and Pan American (PAN-AM) submarine cable systems provide links to parts of Central and South America, the Caribbean, and US; satellite earth stations – 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2010)

Broadcast media:

10 major TV networks of which only one, Television Nacional de Peru, is state-owned; multi-channel cable TV services are available; in excess of 2,000 radio stations including a substantial number of indigenous language stations (2010)

Internet country code: .pe
Internet hosts: 234,102 (2012)
Internet users: 9.158 million (2009)




total: 140,672 km (of which 18,698 km are paved)

note: includes 24,593 km of national roads (of which 14,748 km are paved), 24,235 km of departmental roads (2,340 km paved), and 91,844 km of local roads (1,611 km paved) (2012)



total:  1,907 km

standard gauge:  1,772 km 1.435-m gauge

narrow gauge:  135 km 0.914-m gauge (2012)


8,808 km (there are 8,600 km of navigable tributaries on the Amazon system and 208 km on Lago Titicaca) (2011)


extra heavy crude 786 km; gas 1,526 km; liquid petroleum gas 679 km; oil 1,033 km; refined products 15 km (2013)

Ports and terminals:

major seaport(s): Callao, Matarani, Paita
river port(s): Iquitos, Pucallpa, Yurimaguas (Amazon)
oil terminals: Conchan oil terminal, La Pampilla oil terminal
container port(s) (TEUs): Callao (1,616,365)

Merchant marine:

total:  22

by type: cargo 2, chemical tanker 5, liquefied gas 2, petroleum tanker 13
foreign-owned: 8 (Chile 6, Ecuador 1, Spain 1)
registered in other countries: 9 (Panama 9) (2010)


191 (2013)

Airports – with paved runways:

total:  59

over 3,047 m: 5
2,438 to 3,047 m: 21
1,524 to 2,437 m: 16
914 to 1,523 m: 12
under 914 m: 5 (2013)

Airports – with unpaved runways:

total:  59

over 3,047 m: 5
2,438 to 3,047 m: 21
1,524 to 2,437 m: 16
914 to 1,523 m: 12
under 914 m: 5 (2013)

Miraflores view from the 11th floor of  the building. MIne i



Military branches:

Peruvian Army (Ejercito Peruano), Peruvian Navy (Marina de Guerra del Peru, MGP; includes naval air, naval infantry, and Coast Guard), Air Force of Peru (Fuerza Aerea del Peru, FAP) (2013)

Military service age and obligation:

18-50 years of age for male and 18-45 years of age for female voluntary military service; no conscription (2012)

Manpower  available for military service:

males age 16-49: 7,385,588

females age 16-49: 7,727,623 (2010 est.)

Manpower – fit for military service:

males age 16-49: 5,788,629

females age 16-49: 6,565,097 (2010 est.)

Military manpower – reaching military age annually:

male: 304,094

female: 298,447 (2010 est.)
Military expenditures – percent of GDP: 1.28% of GDP (2012)1.15% of GDP (2011)1.28% of GDP (2010)



   Transnational Issues

Disputes – international:

Chile and Ecuador rejected Peru’s November 2005 unilateral legislation to shift the axis of their joint treaty-defined maritime boundaries along the parallels of latitude to equidistance lines which favor Peru; organized illegal narcotics operations in Colombia have penetrated Peru’s shared border; Peru rejects Bolivia’s claim to restore maritime access through a sovereign corridor through Chile along the Peruvian border
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
IDPs: 150,000 (civil war from 1980-2000; most IDPs are indigenous peasants in Andean and Amazonian regions; as of 2011, no new information on the situation of these IDPs) (2013 est.)

Illicit drugs:

until 1996 the world’s largest coca leaf producer, Peru is now the world’s second largest producer of coca leaf, though it lags far behind Colombia; cultivation of coca in Peru was estimated at 40,000 hectares in 2009, a slight decrease over 2008; second largest producer of cocaine, estimated at 225 metric tons of potential pure cocaine in 2009; finished cocaine is shipped out from Pacific ports to the international drug market; increasing amounts of base and finished cocaine, however, are being moved to Brazil, Chile, Argentina, and Bolivia for use in the Southern Cone or transshipment to Europe and Africa; increasing domestic drug consumption

 Thanks to:




El Perú es el tercer país más grande en América del Sur. El Perú se extiende a largo del océano del Pacífico. La costa consiste de un desierto y la región es famosa por las mesetas cubiertas de hierba, el aire limpio, y el sol centelleante. Los bosques tropicales y las selvas cubren la mayor parte de la región.

Situación geográfica

Perú tiene una superficie aproximada de 1.285.216 km², estando el País dividido en tres zonas bastante diferenciadas: Zona costera, zona montañosa y la selva amazónica.

Zona costera: Esta bañada por el Océano Pacifico con un total de 2.500 Km de longitud y con una anchura máxima de 200 Km en el norte y 40 Km en la zona sur. Es en esta zona donde esta la mayor concentración de personas de todo el país.

Zona montañosa: Definida perfectamente por la cordillera de Los Andes que atraviesa el Perú de Norte a Sur.

La selva amazónica: Es una gigantesca zona verde, frondosa y la menos poblada del país. 


Debido a esta diversidad de zonas nos encontraremos con una abundante diversidad climática que nos va a permitir disfrutar de casi todos los climas conocidos en la tierra en un solo País.

Zona costera (Lima, Trujillo):

Invierno: De mayo a Octubre es la época más fresca.

Verano: De Octubre a Marzo hace calor por las mañanas y desde diciembre a marzo el cielo se presenta limpio y refresca un poco por las noches.

Zona montañosa (Cuzco):

Predomina el clima de sierra ó de interior. Hay dos estaciones distintas que están marcas por la ausencia ó no de precipitaciones.

La época de lluvia discurre desde noviembre hasta abril con frecuentes aguaceros de varias horas de duración, especialmente por las tardes. La altitud y la presencia constante de nubes evitan que las temperaturas suban bastante a pesar de ser verano en el hemisferio sur.

La época seca se caracteriza por que domina el cielo azul todo el día y las temperaturas se mantienen suaves, cuando este desaparece se produce un enfriamiento tanto al atardecer como al anochecer.

La selva amazónica (Puerto Maldonado):

Al igual que en el clima de sierra hay dos estaciones bastante diferenciadas: Desde Noviembre a abril llueve muy frecuentemente y desde mayo a octubre es conocida como la época seca donde hay grandes chubasqueros de gran intensidad y de poca duración.

El clima de selva se caracteriza por el alto grado de humedad (entre el 80% e 100%) dependiendo de la estación y una temperatura uniforme a lo largo de todo el año de aproximadamente los 28ºC. 


Actualmente la economía esta fuertemente marcada por el sector servicios que es aproximadamente el 50% del PIB y ocupa a más de la mitad de la población. Le sigue la industria minera y de la construcción con apenas un 15% de la población trabajadora y un 30% del PIB. En ultimo lugar esta la agricultura y cría de ganado con poco más del 15% de PIB.


La población de Perú es de 24,654,000 habitantes con el 35% de las personas entre la edad de 0 y 14 años, el 61% entre la edad de 15 y 64, y el 4% que sobrepasa la edad de 65 años. Casi la mitad de la población son indios. El resto de la población son gente de ascendencia india y blanca; los blancos constituyen un pequeño porcentaje de la población. También, la capital de Perú, Lima, tiene 371,000 habitantes.


El castellano es la lengua más hablada y el idioma oficial del Perú con mas del 80% de la población que lo practica, seguido con el 16% por el ” Quechua ” y el resto de la población hablan otros idiomas ó lenguas nativas, principalmente en la zona de la Selva Amazónica.


Desde la llegada de los españoles este ha sido un país mayoritariamente católico, hoy el 90% de la población sigue esta religión.


Las personas que llegan provenientes de la Comunidad Económica Europea no necesitan el visado de entrada al País.


Los tramites habituales de entrada son idénticos a los habituales a todos lo piases que no pertenecen a la CEE, es decir declaración de objetos, motivos del viaje, etc. en algunos caso se procede al registro e inspección de los equipajes.

Algunos consejos útiles para la salida del País: Esta totalmente prohibido sacar ó exportar objetos de arte precolombino (trajes, huacos, etc.) y hojas de mate de coca aunque estos hayan sido fácilmente adquiridos en tiendas especializadas.

 Monedas y Cambio

La moneda oficial del Perú es el Nuevo Sol.

La divisa con mayor aceptación es el Dólar Americano. Los cheques de viaje son difíciles de cambiar.

Para información el cambio orientativo del Dólar a Soles a fecha de Mayo del 2002 era de 1 Dólar americano = 3.43 Soles.


No es aconsejable beber el agua corriente del grifo ó fuente en ninguna ciudad del Perú. Los propios peruanos hierven previamente el agua antes de beberla por lo que se aconseja beber siempre el agua embotellada, no obstante el agua corriente puede usarse sin riesgos para tomar duchas y baños.

El Soroche ó mal de altura debe de tenerse en cuenta cuando se visitan las ciudades de la zona montañosa ya que este mal se da generalmente en zonas con altitudes superiores a los 3.000 m., los efectos más comunes son sensación de flaqueza en general acompañada de dolores de cabeza, esto es debido a una pobre concentración de oxigeno por el efecto altura siendo aconsejable como remedio casero el hacer un hora de reposo hasta que el cuerpo se adapte a las nuevas circunstancias exteriores.


Es aconsejable estar vacunado de la Fiebre amarilla cuando se visitan la selva amazónica. En algunas zonas de la selva exigen la presentación de dicho certificado.

 La mejor época para visitar el Perú

Ninguna época del año es mala para visitar el Perú. Teniendo en cuenta el clima la mejor época sería desde mayo a septiembre coincidiendo con la época de sequía en la zona de montaña y selva amazónica.

La época de lluvias es desde mediados de noviembre hasta marzo e impide que algunas de estas actividades aquí programadas puedan desarrollarse con normalidad que pueden originar que puedan ser suspendidas.


Esta penalizado la posesión y el consumo de drogas. Es probable que después de un cierto tiempo se haya adquirido la costumbre de tomar mate de coca y se caiga en el descuido de querer llevarse algunas hojas de coca para casa, esto puede dar lugar a problemas no deseados en las adunas, aunque estas hayan sido adquiridas con normalidad en cualquier mercado ó tienda. Es mejor no caer en esa tentación por lo que es preferible comprar las infusiones que se venden empaquetadas.


Debido a la variedad climática el equipaje debe de ser variado y dependiendo de las zonas a visitar.

Independientemente de la época del año y del lugar a visitar es aconsejable llevar ropa de abrigo, camisas y pantalones amplios para evitar las picaduras de mosquitos, camisetas de algodón, zapatos de montaña y calzado deportivo.

En época de lluvias es imprescindible llevar un chubasquero y en la selva llevar un pequeño anorak, además de un buen protector o crema para el sol y un sombrero.

Para llevar los documentos y el dinero existen tiendas especializadas que proveen de carteras de diversos modelos que no son fácilmente detéctales y garantizan una mínima seguridad.

En vuelos domésticos por el interior el peso máximo admitido por persona es del orden del los 25 a 30 Kg.

 Hora Local

Habrá de tenerse en cuente la diferencia horaria con el país de origen ya que en Perú no se cambia la hora a lo largo de año.

 Corriente Eléctrica

La corriente eléctrica es de 220 V.

 Información General sobre Restaurantes

No es difícil encontrar buenos restaurantes en las principales ciudades del país, los que más predominan son los que ofrecen los productos típicos de cada zona, siendo estos los platos más fácilmente encontrados. En las ciudades pequeñas es más difícil no obstante este no es un obstáculo para el viajero que le guste el buen paladar y sepa apreciar la gastronomía local.

 Tasas de Aeropuerto

Cada trayecto en avión en vuelo nacional ó domestico debe de abonarse una tasa fija de 12 Nuevo Soles que debe ser pagada en metálico en cada aeropuerto previa ó simultáneamente al embarque ó facturación.


Se paga generalmente un 10% por el servicio de hotel y restaurantes en este concepto, este debe de aparecer siempre en la tabla de precios, aparte de esta tasa esta el impuesto como tal – IGV – que es del 18% y también debe de aparecer en la lista de precios.

Estos son los precios regulados en todo tipo de restaurantes y locales, no obstante en los de alta categoría los empleados siempre son gratificados con una propina adicional.


La historia del Perú es muy interesante. La cultura del Perú es esencialmente incaica. Los incas vivieron en el Perú desde 1100 hasta 1532. Tenían una civilización avanzada pero no tenían una lengua escrita. Su capital estaba en Cuzco. En 1532, Francisco Pizarro conquistó a los incas, y su territorio se hizo parte del imperio español. El Perú perteneció a España hasta 1821, cuando se declaró la Independencia. Hoy, el Perú es una democracia. En 1963, se eligió a Fernando Belaúnde Terry a la presidencia. Hay elecciones en el Perú cada cinco años.

Los incas vivieron en Machu Picchu, una ciudad que también era un fuerte en los Andes. También era un centro para la religión. Macchu Picchu significa “la montaña vieja”. Un arqueólogo norteamericano, Hirman Bignam, lo descubrió en 1921.



Spanish World Academy apoya el turismo de los países de América Latina: