Map of Venezuela




Venezuela was one of three countries that emerged from the collapse of Gran Colombia in 1830 (the others being Ecuador and New Granada, which became Colombia). For most of the first half of the 20th century, Venezuela was ruled by generally benevolent military strongmen, who promoted the oil industry and allowed for some social reforms. Democratically elected governments have held sway since 1959. Hugo CHAVEZ, president from 1999 to 2013, sought to implement his “21st Century Socialism,” which purported to alleviate social ills while at the same time attacking capitalist globalization and existing democratic institutions. His hand-picked successor, President Nicolas MADURO, continues CHAVEZ’s socialist programs. Current concerns include: a weakening of democratic institutions, political polarization, a politicized military, rampant violent crime, overdependence on the petroleum industry with its price fluctuations, foreign exchange controls that discourage private-sector investment, high inflation, a decline in the quality of fundamental houman rights, and widespread scarcity of consumer goods.




Northern South America, bordering the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, between Colombia and Guyana

Geographic coordinates:

8 00 N, 66 00 W

Map references:

South America, Central America and the Caribbean


total:  912,050 sq km

land:  882,050 sq km

water:  30,000 sq km

Area – comparative:

slightly more than twice the size of California

Land boundaries:

total:  4,993 km

border countries:  Brazil 2,200 km, Colombia 2,050 km, Guyana 743 km


2,800 km

Maritime claims:

contiguous zone:  15 NM

continental shelf:  200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

exclusive economic zone:  200 NM

territorial sea:  12 NM


tropical; hot, humid; more moderate in highlands


Andes Mountains and Maracaibo Lowlands in northwest; central plains (llanos); Guiana Highlands in southeast

Elevation extremes:

lowest point:  Caribbean Sea 0 m

highest point:  Pico Bolivar (La Columna) 5,007 m

Natural resources:

petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, gold, bauxite, other minerals, hydropower, diamonds

Land use:

arable land: 2.85%
permanent crops: 0.71%
other: 96.44% (2011)

Irrigated land:

10,550 sq km (2008)

Natural hazards:

subject to floods, rockslides, mudslides; periodic droughts

Environment – current issues:

sewage pollution of Lago de Valencia; oil and urban pollution of Lago de Maracaibo; deforestation; soil degradation; urban and industrial pollution, especially along the Caribbean coast; threat to the rainforest ecosystem from irresponsible mining operations

Environment – international agreements:

party to: Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed but not ratified:: none of the selected agreements

Geography – note:

on major sea and air routes linking North and South America; Angel Falls in the Guiana Highlands is the world’s highest waterfall




28,868,486 (July 2014 est.)

Age structure:

0-14 years: 28.2% (male 4,143,840/female 3,985,489)
15-24 years: 18.8% (male 2,723,856/female 2,697,672)
25-54 years: 39.6% (male 5,614,922/female 5,818,903)
55-64 years: 7.5% (male 1,030,898/female 1,137,894)
65 years and over: 5.8% (male 755,183/female 959,829) (2014 est.)

Population growth rate:

1.42% (2014 est.)

Birth rate:

19.42 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)

Death rate:

5.27 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)

Net migration rate:

-0.15 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

Sex ratio:

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2014 est.)

Infant mortality rate:

19.33 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 22.73 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 15.75 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:

total population: 74.39 years

male: 71.26 years
female: 77.67 years (2014 est.)

Total fertility rate:

2.35 children born/woman (2014 est.)

HIV/AIDS – adult prevalence rate:

0.6% (2012 est.)

HIV/AIDS – people living with HIV/AIDS:

107,900 (2012 est.)

HIV/AIDS – deaths:

3,800 (2012 est.)


noun:  Venezuelan(s)

adjective:  Venezuelan

Ethnic groups:

Spanish, Italian, Portuguese, Arab, German, African, indigenous people


nominally Roman Catholic 96%, Protestant 2%, other 2%


Spanish (official), numerous indigenous dialects


definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 95.5%
male: 95.7%
female: 95.4% (2009 est.)



Country name:

conventional long form:  Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela

conventional short form:  Venezuela

local long form:  Republica Bolivariana de Venezuela

local short form:  Venezuela

Government type:

federal republic



Administrative divisions:

23 states (estados, singular – estado),1 federal district* (distrito federal), and 1 federal dependency** (dependencia federal); Amazonas, Anzoategui, Apure, Aragua, Barinas, Bolivar, Carabobo, Cojedes, Delta Amacuro, Dependencias Federales**, Distrito Federal*, Falcon, Guarico, Lara, Merida, Miranda, Monagas, Nueva Esparta, Portuguesa, Sucre, Tachira, Trujillo, Vargas, Yaracuy, Zulia

note:  the federal dependency consists of 11 federally controlled island groups with a total of 72 individual islands


5 July 1811 (from Spain)

National holiday:

Independence Day, 5 July (1811)


many previous; latest adopted 15 December 1999, effective 30 December 1999; amended 2009 (2013)

Legal system:

civil law system based on the Spanish civil code


18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:

chief of state: President Nicolas MADURO Moros (since 19 April 2013); Executive Vice President Jorge Alberto ARREAZA Montserrat (since 19 April 2013); note – the president is both chief of state and head of government; former Executive Vice President Nicolas MADURO Moros assumed presidential responsibilities after the death of President Hugo CHAVEZ Frias on 5 March 2013 and became Acting President while preparations for elections took place. He won a national election on 14 April 2013 and started a six-year term
head of government: President Nicolas MADURO Moros (since 19 April 2013); Executive Vice President Jorge Alberto ARREAZA Montserrat (since 19 April 2013)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a six-year term (eligible for unlimited reelection); election last held on 14 April 2013; note – this was a special election held following the death of President Hugo CHAVEZ Frias on 5 March 2013; the next scheduled election after this is expected to be held in late 2018 or early 2019 pending official convocation by the country’s electoral body)
note: in 1999, a National Constituent Assembly drafted a new constitution that increased the presidential term to six years; an election was subsequently held on 30 July 2000 under the terms of this constitution; in 2009, a national referendum approved the elimination of term limits on all elected officials, including the presidency
election results: Nicolas MADURO Moros elected president; percent of vote – Nicolas MADURO Moros 50.61%, Henrique CAPRILES Radonski 49.12%, other 0.24%

Legislative branch:

unicameral National Assembly or Asamblea Nacional (165 seats; members elected by popular vote on a proportional basis to serve five-year terms; three seats reserved for the indigenous peoples of Venezuela)
elections: last held on 26 September 2010 (next to be held in 2015)
election results: percent of vote by party – pro-government 48.9%, opposition coalition 47.9%, other 3.2%; seats by party – pro-government 98, opposition 65, other 2

Judicial branch:

highest court(s): Supreme Tribunal of Justice (consists of 32 judges organized into six divisions – constitutional, political administrative, electoral, civil appeals, criminal appeals, and social (mainly agrarian and labor issues)
judge selection and term of office: judges proposed by the Committee of Judicial Postulation (an independent body of organizations dealing with legal issues and of the organs of citizen power) and appointed by the National Assembly; judges serve non-renewable 12-year terms
subordinate courts: Superior or Appeals Courts (Tribunales Superiores); District Tribunals (Tribunales de Distrito); Courts of First Instance (Tribunales de Primera Instancia); Parish Courts (Tribunales de Parroquia); Justices of the Peace (Justicia de Paz) Network

Political parties and leaders:

A New Time or UNT [Omar BARBOZA]
Brave People’s Alliance or ABP [Antonio LEDEZMA]
Christian Democrats or COPEI [Roberto ENRIQUEZ]
Coalition of opposition parties — The Democratic Unity Table or MUD [Ramon Guillermo AVELEDO]
Communist Party of Venezuela or PCV [Oscar FIGUERA]
Democratic Action or AD [Henry RAMOS ALLUP]
Fatherland for All or PPT [Rafael UZCATEGUI]
For Social Democracy or PODEMOS [Ismael GARCIA]
Justice First or PJ [Julio BORGES]
Movement Toward Socialism or MAS [Nicolas SOSA]
Popular Will or VP [Leopoldo LOPEZ]
Progressive Wave or AP [Henri FALCON]
The Radical Cause [Daniel SANTOLO]
United Socialist Party of Venezuela or PSUV [Nicolas MADURO]
Venezuelan Progressive Movement or MPV [Simon CALZADILLA]
Venezuela Project or PV [Henrique SALAS ROMER]

Political pressure groups and leaders:

Bolivarian and Socialist Workers’ Union (a ruling party labor union)
Confederacion Venezolana de Industriales or Coindustria (a conservative business group)
Consejos Comunales (pro-Chavez local cooperatives)
FEDECAMARAS (a conservative business group)
Union of Oil Workers of Venezuela or FUTPV
Venezuelan Confederation of Workers or CTV (opposition-oriented labor organization)
various civil society groups and human rights organizations

International organization participation:


Diplomatic representation in the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant)
chancery: 1099 30th Street NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 342-2214
FAX: [1] (202) 342-6820
consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Houston, New Orleans, New York, San Francisco, San Juan (Puerto Rico)

Diplomatic representation from the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d’Affaires Philip G. LAIDLAW
embassy: Calle F con Calle Suapure, Urbanizacion Colinas de Valle Arriba, Caracas 1080
mailing address: P. O. Box 62291, Caracas 1060-A; APO AA 34037
telephone: [58] (212) 975-6411, 907-8400 (after hours)
FAX: [58] (212) 907-8199

Flag description:

three equal horizontal bands of yellow (top), blue, and red with the coat of arms on the hoist side of the yellow band and an arc of seven white five-pointed stars centered in the blue band



Economy – overview:

Venezuela remains highly dependent on oil revenues, which account for roughly 96% of export earnings, about 45% of budget revenues, and around 12% of GDP. Fueled by high oil prices, pre-election government spending helped spur GDP growth in 2012 to 5.6%. Government spending, minimum wage hikes, and improved access to domestic credit created an increase in consumption which combined with supply problems to cause higher inflation – roughly 20% in 2012 and rising to more than 56% in 2013. Former President Hugo CHAVEZ’s efforts to increase the government’s control of the economy by nationalizing firms in the agribusiness, financial, construction, oil, and steel sectors hurt the private investment environment, reduced productive capacity, and slowed non-petroleum exports. In 2013, Venezuela continued to wrestle with housing and electricity crises, and rolling food and goods shortages, resulting from the government’s unorthodox economic policies. The budget deficit for the public sector reached 17% of GDP in 2012 and was trimmed to under 10% of GDP in 2013. The Venezuelan government has maintained a regime of strict currency exchange controls since 2003. Venezuelan law now sanctions a three-tiered exchange rate system, with rates based on the government’s import priorities.


purchasing power parity – $407.4 billion (2013 est.)

GDP – real growth rate:

1.6% (2013 est.)

GDP – per capita:

$13,600 (2013 est.)

GDP – composition by sector:

agriculture: 3.7%
industry: 35.5%
services: 60.8% (2013 est.)

Population below poverty line:

31.6% (2011 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:

lowest 10%: 1.7%
highest 10%: 32.7% (2006)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):

56.2% (2013 est.)

Labor force:

14.01 million (2013 est.)

Labor force – by occupation:

agriculture: 7.3%
industry: 21.8%
services: 70.9% (4th quarter, 2011)

Unemployment rate:

7.9% (2013 est.)


revenues: $103.4 billion
expenditures: $139.4 billion (2013 est.)


agricultural products, livestock, raw materials, machinery and equipment, transport equipment, construction materials, medical equipment, pharmaceuticals, chemicals, iron and steel products, crude oil and petroleum products

Industrial production growth rate:

1% (2013 est.)

Electricity – consumption:
85.05 billion kWh (2011 est.)
Electricity – exports:
626 million kWh (2010 est.)
Electricity – imports:
0 kWh (2010 est.)
Electricity – installed generating capacity:
27.5 million kW (2012 est.)
Electricity – from fossil fuels:
35.7% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity – from nuclear fuels:
0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity – from hydroelectric plants:
64.3% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity – from other renewable sources:
0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Crude oil – production:
2.489 million bbl/day (2012 est.)
Crude oil – exports:
1.645 million bbl/day (2010 est.)
Crude oil – imports:
0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Crude oil – proved reserves:
297.6 billion bbl (1 January 2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products – production:
1.11 million bbl/day (2010 est.)
Refined petroleum products – consumption:
571,000 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Refined petroleum products – exports:
638,000 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Refined petroleum products – imports:
16,660 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Natural gas – production:
25.28 billion cu m (2012 est.)
Natural gas – consumption:
27.11 billion cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas – exports:
0 cu m (2011 est.)
Natural gas – imports:
2.11 billion cu m (2011 est.)
Natural gas – proved reserves:
5.524 trillion cu m (1 January 2013 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
182.7 million Mt (2011 est.)

Agriculture – products:

corn, sorghum, sugarcane, rice, bananas, vegetables, coffee; beef, pork, milk, eggs; fish


$91.78 billion (2013 est.)

Exports – commodities:

petroleum and petroleum products, bauxite and aluminum, minerals, chemicals, agricultural products

Exports – partners:

US 39.1%, China 14.3%, India 12%, Netherlands Antilles 7.8%, Cuba 4.6% (2012)


$59.32 billion (2013 est.)

Imports – commodities:

ragricultural products, livestock, raw materials, machinery and equipment, transport equipment, construction materials, medical equipment, petroleum products, pharmaceuticals, chemicals, iron and steel products

Imports – partners:

US 31.7%, China 16.8%, Brazil 9.1%, Colombia 4.8% (2012)

Debt – external:

)$74.87 billion (31 December 2013 est.


Currency code:



bolivar (VEB)

Exchange rates:

bolivars (VEB) per US dollar –
6.048 (2013 est.)
4.289 (2012 est.)
2.5821 (2010 est.)
2.147 (2009)
2.147 (2008)

Fiscal year:

calendar year



Telephones – main lines in use:
7.65 million (2012)
Telephones – mobile cellular:
30.52 million (2012)
Telephone system:
general assessment: modern and expanding
domestic: 2 domestic satellite systems with 3 earth stations; recent substantial improvement in telephone service in rural areas; substantial increase in digitalization of exchanges and trunk lines; installation of a national interurban fiber-optic network capable of digital multimedia services; combined fixed and mobile-cellular telephone subscribership 130 per 100 persons
international: country code – 58; submarine cable systems provide connectivity to Cuba and the Caribbean, Central and South America, and US; satellite earth stations – 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) and 1 PanAmSat; participating with Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia in the construction of an international fiber-optic network (2013)
Broadcast media:
government supervises a mixture of state-run and private broadcast media; 13 public service networks, 61 privately owned TV networks, a privately owned news channel with limited national coverage, and a government-backed pan-American channel; state-run radio network includes roughly 65 news stations and another 30 stations targeted at specific audiences; state-sponsored community broadcasters include 235 radio stations and 44 TV stations; the number of private broadcast radio stations has been declining, but many still remain in operation (2014)
Internet country code:
Internet hosts:
1.016 million (2012)
Internet users:
8.918 million (2009)




total: 806 km

country comparison to the world: 98

standard gauge: 806 km 1.435-m gauge (41 km electrified) (2008)


total: 96,155 km

country comparison to the world: 48

paved: 32,308 km
unpaved: 63,847 km (2002)



7,100 km (the Orinoco River (400 km) and Lake de Maracaibo are navigable by oceangoing vessels) (2011)


extra heavy crude 981 km; gas 5,941 km; oil 7,588 km; refined products 1,778 km (2013)

Ports and harbors:

major seaport(s): La Guaira, Maracaibo, Puerto Cabello, Punta Cardon
oil terminals: Jose terminal

Merchant marine:

total: 53
by type: bulk carrier 4, cargo 12, chemical tanker 1, liquefied gas 5, passenger 1, passenger/cargo 14, petroleum tanker 16
foreign-owned: 9 (Denmark 1, Estonia 1, Germany 1, Greece 4, Mexico 1, Spain 1)
registered in other countries: 14 (Panama 13, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1) (2010)



444 (2013)

Airports – with paved runways:

total: 127
over 3,047 m: 6
2,438 to 3,047 m: 9
1,524 to 2,437 m: 33
914 to 1,523 m: 62
under 914 m: 17 (2013)

Airports – with unpaved runways:

total: 317
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 57
914 to 1,523 m: 127
under 914 m:
130 (2013)


)3 (2013)



   Transnational Issues

Disputes – international:

claims all of the area west of the Essequibo River in Guyana, preventing any discussion of a maritime boundary; Guyana has expressed its intention to join Barbados in asserting claims before the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea that Trinidad and Tobago’s maritime boundary with Venezuela extends into their waters; dispute with Colombia over maritime boundary and Venezuelan administered Los Monjes islands near the Gulf of Venezuela; Colombian organized illegal narcotics and paramilitary activities penetrate Venezuela’s shared border region; US, France, and the Netherlands recognize Venezuela’s granting full effect to Aves Island, thereby claiming a Venezuelan Economic Exclusion Zone/continental shelf extending over a large portion of the eastern Caribbean Sea; Dominica, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines protest Venezuela’s full effect claim

Illicit drugs:

small-scale illicit producer of opium and coca for the processing of opiates and coca derivatives; however, large quantities of cocaine, heroin, and marijuana transit the country from Colombia bound for US and Europe; significant narcotics-related money-laundering activity, especially along the border with Colombia and on Margarita Island; active eradication program primarily targeting opium; increasing signs of drug-related activities by Colombian insurgents on border

Thanks  to: of Venezuela



País (nombre oficial)

República de Venezuela




352.144 millas2
912.050 km2
(un poco más de doble la superficie de California)


28,868,486 (Julio2014 est.)

Población estimada
en el año 2050



Español (lengua oficial); dialectos hablados por alrededor de indígenas en el interior del país.


91,1% total; 91,8% hombres; 90,3% mujeres (est. 1995)


Católicos 96%, Protestantes 2%, otras 2%

Expectativa de vida

Hombres: 70,29 años; mujeres: 76,56 años (est. 2001)


República federal


1 Bolívar (Bs) = 100 centimos

Producto nacional bruto (per cápita)

$13,600 (2013 est.)


Petróleo, minería de mineral de hierro, materiales de construcción, industria de alimentos, telas y tejidos, acero, aluminio, montaje de vehículos motorizados


Maíz, sorgo, caña de azúcar, arroz, bananas, verduras, café; carne de res, carne de cerdo, leche, huevos, pesca

Tierras de Labrantío


Minerales y Recursos

Petróleo, gas natural, mineral de hierro, oro, bauxita, otros minerales, fuerza hidroeléctrica, diamantes





Cronología histórica


Los Aborígenes

En el momento del descubrimiento, el país estaba habitado por los Arawacos, Ajaguas, Cumanagotos, Ayamanes, Jirajaras, Caquetíos y otras tribus de sangre caribe, dedicadas a la agricultura y pesca, pero todas celosas defensoras de su territorio ancestral. En lo que hoy es el Estado Zulia, habitaban los Guajiros. En los Andes y las mesetas del sur, vivían los Timoto-cuicas. En el actual territorio del Estado Falcón, estaba en su apogeo la cultura de los Caquetíos, que habían formado la Confederación Naurhuaca, algunos de cuyos caciques , como Manaure, consiguieron notoriedad por su sabiduría y elevado sentido de justicia.

El Descubrimiento

Entre el 31 de julio y el 5 de agosto de 1498, Cristóbal Colón, en su tercer viaje, divisó la península de Paria y la “Tierra de Gracia” y luego descubrió la isla de Margarita. Después recorrió las costas y llegó hasta un sitio donde los navegantes encontraron aldeas de palafitos que asociaron con la ciudad de Venecia, posiblemente de allí nació la idea de llamar Venezuela esas primeras poblaciones indígenas.

La Conquista

Se inicia en nuestro país por la isla de Cubagua, en los primeros años del 1500. Allí establecieron una aldea que luego tomó el nombre de Nueva Cádiz, para explotar las pesquerías de perlas. Posteriormente, Gonzalo de Ocampo, a la cabeza de una expedición se trasladó a la costa realizando la primera fundación de Cumaná en 1521. La Asunción, en la isla de Margarita, se fundaría años después. El Capitán Juan de Ampíes funda Santa Ana de Coro en 1527. El río Orinoco comenzó a ser explorado por Diego de Ordaz en 1532. Caracas, capital de Venezuela, fue fundada por Diego de Losada el 25 de julio de 1567, en tierras de aborígenes de sangre Caribe.

La Colonia

Desde sus comienzos la administración colonial dependió de la Audiencia de Santo Domingo, pero al constituirse el Virreinato de Santa Fe, buena parte del territorio occidental quedó bajo esa jurisdicción. Con el crecimiento de las ciudades en la costa, los piratas franceses, ingleses y holandeses las sometieron a constantes ataques. En 1718, se abolieron las encomiendas de indios. En 1721, fue creada la Universidad de Caracas. En 1728, el monarca español concedió a la Compañía Guipuzcoana el monopolio del comercio en todo el territorio venezolano. En 1777, fue constituida la Capitanía General de Venezuela, integrada por Caracas, Guayana, Maracaibo, Margarita y Trinidad. Veinte años después los ingleses se apoderaron de Trinidad. La primera insurrección popular fue la de Juan Francisco de León en 1749, luego en Táchira, en 1781 se inicia en nuestro país un levantamiento que se denominó la “insurrección de los comuneros”. En 1784 la Corona eliminó el monopolio del comercio a la Compañía Guipuzcoana. En 1787, fue constituida la Real Audiencia de Caracas. En 1804, fue erigido el Arzobispado de Caracas.

La Independencia

El primer intento de emancipar a Venezuela fue el movimiento de Manuel Gual y José María España que abortó el 13 de julio de 1797. El segundo intento fue realizado en 1806 por Francisco de Miranda, quien al frente de una pequeña escuadra, después de fracasar en la toma de Ocumare, desembarcó en las playas de Coro, pero por falta de apoyo tuvo que retirarse . El 19 de abril de 1810, se produjo el tercer movimiento de emancipación. Un cabildo abierto en Caracas destituyó al Capitán General Vicente Emparan, constituyendo después una junta Gubernativa que desconoció a las cortes de Cádiz. Esa junta envió a Londres, en busca de apoyo, a Simón Bolívar, Luis López y Andrés Bello. Al año siguiente se reunió en Caracas el primer Congreso Constituyente que dictó una Constitución de tipo federal y proclamó la independencia absoluta el 5 de julio de 1811. El Generalísimo Francisco de Miranda fue nombrado Jefe Supremo del ejército patriota, pero poco pudo hacer ante la superioridad de las fuerzas realistas al mando de Domingo Monteverde. Presionado por circunstancias diversas capitula ante Monteverde. Acusado injustamente de “traidor” es entregado a los españoles el 30 de julio de 1812. Cargado de grillos Miranda es remitido a la prisión de la Carraca, en Cádiz, donde muere el 14 de julio de 1816.

Sobreponiéndose a la derrota infligida por Monteverde, el caraqueño Simón Bolívar, realizó una admirable campaña en el bajo Magdalena ( Colombia). En mayo de 1813 comenzó la guerra de liberación de Venezuela. Entró triunfalmente a Mérida y el 18 de junio de ese mismo año, proclamó en Trujillo la “guerra a muerte” a los españoles. En Caracas, recibió el título de “Libertador”. En junio de 1814, el sanguinario realista José Tomás Boves triunfa en La Puerta y avanza hacia Caracas. Bolívar se retira al Oriente, embarcándose después rumbo a Cartagena. En Tunja el Congreso le otorgó amplios poderes para la campaña de la Nueva Granada, pero temiendo una guerra civil se embarca para la isla de Jamaica a fin de organizar la nueva campaña militar en Venezuela. En 1815, desembarcó en Margarita, preparó una expedición y partió a Carúpano y después a Ocumare de la Costa. Volvió a Haití por segunda vez y regresó a Venezuela en enero de 1816. El 6 de mayo de ese año será reconocido como jefe Supremo de la República en una Asamblea de notables reunida en el templo de Santa Ana, de la isla de Margarita.

Desde Guayana, Bolívar entró a Calabozo en 1818 derrotando al general Pablo Morillo. Ocupó los valles de Aragua, pero volvió a ser derrotado en La Puerta. Infatigable regresa a Angostura, reorganiza el ejército y funda el periódico patriota denominado “Correo del Orinoco”. El año de 1819, convoca al Congreso de Venezuela y en un célebre discurso siembra las bases de la Gran Colombia (Venezuela – Nueva Granada y Ecuador).

Reorganizado el ejército, Bolívar cruzó los Andes para libertar a Colombia. En la batalla de Boyacá, 7 de agosto de 1819, demostró su genio militar. El Congreso de Colombia agradecido, nombró a Bolívar presidente de la República.

La batalla decisiva para la independencia de Venezuela se produjo el 24 de junio de 1821. Ese día Bolívar, en el Campo de Carabobo, con la ayuda de los llaneros de Páez y la Legión Británica, selló la independencia de Venezuela consolidada luego en la batalla contra el dominio español, que tuvo como escenario al Lago de Maracaibo el 24 de julio de 1823.