Map of Ecuador




What is now Ecuador formed part of the northern Inca Empire until the Spanish conquest in 1533. Quito became a seat of Spanish colonial government in 1563 and part of the Viceroyalty of New Granada in 1717. The territories of the Viceroyalty – New Granada (Colombia), Venezuela, and Quito – gained their independence between 1819 and 1822 and formed a federation known as Gran Colombia. When Quito withdrew in 1830, the traditional name was changed in favor of the “Republic of the Equator.” Between 1904 and 1942, Ecuador lost territories in a series of conflicts with its neighbors. A border war with Peru that flared in 1995 was resolved in 1999. Although Ecuador marked 30 years of civilian governance in 2004, the period was marred by political instability. Protests in Quito contributed to the mid-term ouster of three of Ecuador’s last four democratically elected presidents. In late 2008, voters approved a new constitution, Ecuador’s 20th since gaining independence. General elections were held in February 2013, and voters re-elected President Rafael CORREA.




Western South America, bordering the Pacific Ocean at the Equator, between Colombia and Peru

Geographic coordinates:

2 00 S, 77 30 W

Map references:

South America


total:  283,561 sq km

land:  276,841 sq km

water:  6,720 sq km

note:  includes Galapagos Islands

Area – comparative:

slightly smaller than Nevada

Land boundaries:

total:  2,010 km

border countries:  Colombia 590 km, Peru 1,420 km


2,237 km

Maritime claims:

continental shelf:  claims continental shelf between mainland and Galapagos Islands

territorial sea:  200 NM


tropical along coast, becoming cooler inland at higher elevations; tropical in Amazonian jungle lowlands


coastal plain (costa), inter-Andean central highlands (sierra), and flat to rolling eastern jungle (oriente)

Elevation extremes:

lowest point:  Pacific Ocean 0 m

highest point:  Chimborazo 6,267 m

Natural resources:

petroleum, fish, timber, hydropower

Land use:

arable land: 4.51%

permanent crops:  5.38%

other:  90.11% (2011)

Irrigated land:

8,534 sq km (2003)

Natural hazards:

frequent earthquakes, landslides, volcanic activity; periodic droughts

Environment – current issues:

deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; water pollution; pollution from oil production wastes in ecologically sensitive areas of the Amazon Basin and Galapagos Islands

Environment – international agreements:

party to: 

Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements


Geography – note:

Cotopaxi in Andes is highest active volcano in world

Guayaquil, Ecuador




15,654,411 (July 2014 est.)

Age structure:

0-14 years: 28.5% (male 2,275,448/female 2,184,706)
15-24 years: 18.6% (male 1,478,184/female 1,439,288)
25-54 years: 38.9% (male 2,968,757/female 3,124,938)
55-64 years: 7.1% (male 544,097/female 562,326)
65 years and over: 6.7% (male 514,549/female 562,118) (2014 est.)

Population growth rate:

1.37% (2014 est.)

Birth rate:

18.87 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)

Death rate:

5.04 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)

Net migration rate:

-0.13 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)

Sex ratio:

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.92 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2014 est.)

Infant mortality rate:

17.93 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 21.11 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 14.58 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:

total population:  76.36 years

male:  73..4 years

female:  79.46 years (2014 est.)

Total fertility rate:

2.29 children born/woman (2014 est.)

HIV/AIDS – adult prevalence rate:

0.6% (2012 est.)

HIV/AIDS – people living with HIV/AIDS:

52,300 (2012 est.)

HIV/AIDS – deaths:

2,700 (2012 est.)


noun:  Ecuadorian(s)

adjective:  Ecuadorian

Ethnic groups:

mestizo (mixed Amerindian and white) 71.9%, Montubio 7.4%, Afroecuadorian 7.2%, Amerindian 7%, white 6.1%, other 0.4% (2010 census)


Roman Catholic 95%, other 5%


Spanish (Castillian) 93% (official), Quechua 4.1%, other indigenous 0.7%, foreign 2.2%
note: (Quechua and Shuar are official languages of intercultural relations; other indigenous languages are in official use by indigenous peoples in the areas they inhabit) (2010 est.)


definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 91.6%
male: 93.1%
female: 90.2% (2011 est.) 



Country name:

conventional long form:  Republic of Ecuador

conventional short form:  Ecuador

local long form:  Republica del Ecuador

local short form:  Ecuador

Government type:




Administrative divisions:

24 provinces (provincias, singular – provincia); Azuay, Bolivar, Canar, Carchi, Chimborazo, Cotopaxi, El Oro, Esmeraldas, Galapagos, Guayas, Imbabura, Loja, Los Rios, Manabi, Morona-Santiago, Napo, Orellana, Pastaza, Pichincha, Santa Elena, Santo Domingo de los Tsachilas, Sucumbios, Tungurahua, Zamora-Chinchipe


24 May 1822 (from Spain)

National holiday:

Independence Day (independence of Quito), 10 August (1809)


many previous; latest approved 20 October 2008; amended 2011 (2011)

Legal system:

civil law based on the Chilean civil code with modifications; traditional law in indigenous communities


18-65 years of age, universal and compulsory; 16-18, over 65, and other eligible voters, voluntary

Executive branch:

chief of state: President Rafael CORREA Delgado (since 15 January 2007); Vice President Jorge GLAS Espinel (since 24 May 2013); note – the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Rafael CORREA Delgado (since 15 January 2007); Vice President Jorge GLAS Espinel (since 24 May 2013)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections: the president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for a four-year term and can be re-elected for another consecutive term; election last held on 17 February 2013 (next to be held in 2017)
election results: President Rafael CORREA Delgado reelected president; percent of vote – Rafael CORREA Delgado 57.2%, Guillermo LASSO 22.7%, Lucio GUTIERREZ 6.8%, Mauricio RODAS 3.9%, other 9.4%

Legislative branch:

unicameral National Assembly or Asamblea Nacional (137 seats; members are elected through a party-list proportional representation system to serve four-year terms)

elections: last held on 17 February 2013 (next to be held in 2017)
election results: percent of vote by party – NA; seats by party – PAIS 100, CREO 11, PSC 6, AVANZA 5, MUPP 5, PSP 5, other 5; note – defections by members of National Assembly are commonplace, resulting in frequent changes in the numbers of seats held by the various parties.

Judicial branch:

highest court(s): National Court of Justice or Corte Nacional de Justicia (consists of 21 judges including the chief justice and organized into 5 specialized chambers); Constitutional Court or Corte Constitucional (consists of 9 judges)
judge selection and term of office: justices of National Court of Justice elected by the Judiciary Council, a 9-member independent body of law professionals; judges elected for 9-year, non-renewable terms, with one-third of the membership renewed every 3 years; Constitutional Court judges appointed by the executive, legislative, and Citizen Participation branches of government; judges appointed for 9-year non-renewable terms with one-third of the membership renewed every 3 years
subordinate courts: Fiscal Tribunal; Election Dispute Settlement Courts, provincial courts (one for each province); cantonal courts

Political parties and leaders:

Alianza PAIS movement [Rafael Vicente CORREA Delgado]
Avanza Party or AVANZA [Ramiro GONZALEZ]
Creating Opportunities Movement or CREO [Guillermo LASSO]
Institutional Renewal and National Action Party or PRIAN [Alvaro NOBOA]
Pachakutik Plurinational Unity Movement or MUPP [Rafael ANTUNI]
Patriotic Society Party or PSP [Lucio GUTIERREZ Borbua]
Popular Democracy Movement or MPD [Luis VILLACIS]
Roldosist Party or PRE
Social Christian Party or PSC [Pascual DEL CIOPPO]
Socialist Party [Fabian SOLANO]
Society United for More Action or SUMA [Mauricio RODAS]
Warrior’s Spirit Movement [Jaime NEBOT]

Political pressure groups and leaders:

Confederation of Indigenous Nationalities of Ecuador or CONAIE [Humberto CHOLANGO]
Federation of Indigenous Evangelists of Ecuador or FEINE [Manuel CHUGCHILAN, president]
National Federation of Indigenous Afro-Ecuatorianos and Peasants or FENOCIN
National Teacher’s Union or UNE [Mariana PALLASCO]

International organization participation:


Diplomatic representation in the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Saskia Nathalie CELY Suarez (since 2 December 2011)
chancery: 1050 30th Street, NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 465-8140
FAX: [1] (202) 333-2893
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Haven (CT), New Orleans, New York, Newark (NJ), Phoenix, San Francisco, San Juan (Puerto Rico)

Diplomatic representation from the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Adam E. NAMM (since 26 April 2012)
embassy: Avenida Avigiras E12-170 y Avenida Eloy Alfaro, Quito
mailing address: Avenida Guayacanes N52-205 y Avenida Avigiras
telephone: [593] (2) 398-5000
FAX: [593] (2) 398-5100
consulate(s) general: Guayaquil

Flag description:

three horizontal bands of yellow (top, double width), blue, and red with the coat of arms superimposed at the center of the flag; similar to the flag of Colombia which is shorter and does not bear a coat of arms

Palacio Presidencial



Economy – overview:

Ecuador is substantially dependent on its petroleum resources, which have accounted for more than half of the country’s export earnings and approximately two-fifths of public sector revenues in recent years. In 1999/2000, Ecuador’s economy suffered from a banking crisis, with GDP contracting by 5.3% and poverty increasing significantly. In March 2000, the Congress approved a series of structural reforms that also provided for the adoption of the US dollar as legal tender. Dollarization stabilized the economy, and positive growth returned in the years that followed, helped by high oil prices, remittances, and increased non-traditional exports. From 2002-06 the economy grew an average of 4.3% per year, the highest five-year average in 25 years. After moderate growth in 2007, the economy reached a growth rate of 6.4% in 2008, buoyed by high global petroleum prices and increased public sector investment. President Rafael CORREA Delgado, who took office in January 2007, defaulted in December 2008 on Ecuador’s sovereign debt, which, with a total face value of approximately US$3.2 billion, represented about 30% of Ecuador’s public external debt. In May 2009, Ecuador bought back 91% of its “defaulted” bonds via an international reverse auction. Economic policies under the CORREA administration – for example, an announcement in late 2009 of its intention to terminate 13 bilateral investment treaties, including one with the United States – have generated economic uncertainty and discouraged private investment. China has become Ecuador’s largest foreign lender since Quito defaulted in 2008, allowing the government to maintain a high rate of social spending; Ecuador contracted with the Chinese government for more than $9.9 billion in forward oil sales, project financing, and budget support loans as of December 2013. Foreign investment levels in Ecuador continue to be the lowest in the region as a result of an unstable regulatory environment, weak rule of law, and the crowding-out effect of public investments. In 2013, oil output marginally reversed a declining trend and production is expected to increase slightly in 2014, although prices will likely remain lower than in previous years. Faced with a 2013 trade deficit of $1.1 billion, Ecuador erected technical barriers to trade in December 2013, causing tensions with its largest trading partners. Ecuador also decriminalized intellectual property rights violations in February 2014


purchasing power parity – $157.6 billion (2013 est.)

GDP – real growth rate:

4% (2013 est.)

GDP – per capita:

purchasing power parity – $10,600 (2013 est.)

GDP – composition by sector:

agriculture:  5.9%

industry:  35.1%

services:  59% (2013 est.)

Population below poverty line:

25.6% (December 2013 est)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:

lowest 10%:  1.4%

highest 10%:  38.3% (2010)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):

2.6% (2013 est.)

Labor force:

6.953 million (2013 est.)

Labor force – by occupation:

agriculture: 27.8%
industry: 17.8%
services: 54.4% (2012)

Unemployment rate:

4.2% (2013 est.)


revenues: $37 billion
expenditures: $39.3 billion (2013 est.)


petroleum, food processing, textiles, wood products, chemicals

Industrial production growth rate:

3.1% (2013 est.)

Electricity – production:
22.85 billion kWh (2011 est.)
Electricity – consumption:
19.38 billion kWh (2010 est.)
Electricity – exports:
14.1 million kWh (2010 est.)
Electricity – imports:
1.3 billion kWh (2010 est.)
Electricity – installed generating capacity:
5.243 million kW (2010 est.)
Electricity – from fossil fuels:
55.3% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
Electricity – from nuclear fuels:
0% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
Electricity – from hydroelectric plants:
42.8% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
Electricity – from other renewable sources:
2% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
Crude oil – production:
526,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil – exports:
413,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)
154,000 bbl/day (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 39

Crude oil – proved reserves:
8.24 billion bbl (1 January 2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products – production:
207,300 bbl/day (2013 est.)


US dollar (USD)

Currency code:


Exchange rates:

the US dollar became Ecuador’s currency in 2001

Fiscal year:

calendar year

Cuicocho Crater,Imbabura                       


   Transnational Issues

Disputes – international:

organized illegal narcotics operations in Colombia penetrate across Ecuador’s shared border, which thousands of Colombians also cross to escape the violence in their home country

Illicit drugs:

significant transit country for cocaine originating in Colombia and Peru, with much of the US-bound cocaine passing through Ecuadorian Pacific waters; importer of precursor chemicals used in production of illicit narcotics; attractive location for cash-placement by drug traffickers laundering money because of dollarization and weak anti-money-laundering regime; increased activity on the northern frontier by trafficking groups and Colombian insurgents (2008)

Thanks to: of Ecuador






La República del Ecuador, país situado al nor-occidente de América del Sur, está ubicado a ambos lados de la línea ecuatorial , de donde ha tomado su nombre. Su superficie alcanza los 270.670 km2. La Cordillera de los Andes atraviesa al país de norte a sur y lo divide en tres regiones claramente identificadas. Al oriente de los Andes se extiende la Región Amazónica. Entre las dos cordilleras está situada la Sierra o Región Interandina. El Litoral o Costa avanza desde los flancos occidentales de la Cordillera hasta el Océano Pacífico. Son conocidas las montañas ecuatoriales cubiertas permanentemente con nieves eternas. Entre ellas se destaca el Chimborazo (6.310 m.), el Cotopaxi (6.005 m.), el Cayambe, situado sobre la línea equinoccial (5.840 m.), el Antisana (5.756 m.), y otros más, algunos de los cuales son visibles desde la ciudad de Quito.




Población (hab.): 15.654 .411(July 2014 est) (10º en América, 8º en el Mundo Hispano, 62º en el mundo) Densidad de población (hab./Km2): 39,8 1993) (19º en América, 10º en el Mundo Hispano, 124º en el mundo) Crecimiento poblacional (%): 2,5 (1980-92) (7º en América, 7º en el Mundo Hispano, 21º en el mundo) Natalidad: 29,0 (1992) (8º en América, 6º en el Mundo Hispano, 32º en el mundo)

Mortalidad: 7,0 (1992) (9º en América, 4º en el Mundo Hispano, 32º en el mundo)

Fecundidad en número de hijos: 3,6 (1990-95) (7º en el Mundo Hispano)

Tasa bruta de reproducción (por mujer): 1,77 (1990-95)

Composición de la población por edades:

0-19 años, 49,3 %;

20-39 años, 31,0%;

40-64 años, 15,8%;

65+ años, 3,9 % (1992)

Edad promedio (años): 21,1 (1995)

Proporcionalidad de sexos (hombres/100 mujeres): 101,0 (1995)

Capital (hab.) (1990): Quito, 1.100.847

Ciudades principales (hab.) (1990): Guayaquil, 1.508.844; Cuenca, 194.981; Machala, 144.197;

Portoviejo, 132.937; Manta, 125.505; Ambato, 124.166; Santo Domingo, 114.422; Esmeraldas, 98.664; Ibarra, 80.477; Milagros, 93.637



El clima en el Ecuador no está subordinado a las estaciones y las temperaturas fluctúan de acuerdo a la altitud. La estación lluviosa se inicia en diciembre y finaliza en abril. Las zonas tropicales, sin embargo, están caracterizadas por una permanente humedad y frecuentemente caen lluvias intensas a lo largo de todo el año. La temperatura en la Costa y en el Oriente oscila, en el mes de julio, entre 18º y 25º. La Sierra ecuatoriana posee un clima primaveral, aunque durante la noche baja la temperatura a 8º C. En Quito, a medio día, sube la temperatura a 23º C. En las Islas Galápagos el clima es caliente durante el día y la temperatura desciende a la noche. En los meses de julio y agosto en la Sierra ecuatoriana hay fuertes vientos.



En el Ecuador se hablan varios idiomas indígenas y los dos idiomas nacionales son el quichua y el castellano, éste último también lengua oficial del Estado. En los centros turísticos y hoteles se habla también inglés y, con alguna frecuencia, francés y alemán. Los idiomas oficiales de los Congresos Internacionales de Americanistas son: castellano, portugués, inglés, alemán, francés e italiano. Como en los anteriores Congresos Internacionales de Amercianistas las ponencias se pueden presentar en cualquiera de estos idiomas; no habrá servicio de traducción simultánea.



La moneda ecuatoriana es el Sucre. S/. 4.000,oo equivalen a un dólar norteamericano. Los hoteles y restaurantes más importantes reciben también Traveler-checks y en todos los bancos se pueden cambiar divisas. La forma más frecuente de cancelar las cuentas es a través de las tarjetas de crédito: AMERICAN EXPRESS, DINERS, MASTER CARD Y VISA. En las ciudades pequeñas y en las localidades rurales es aconsejable pagar todo en moneda nacional.



En todo el Ecuador la corriente eléctrica es de 110 vols/60 hertz. Las instalaciones son de tipo americano, es decir con tomacorrientes bipolares planos.



· Es aconsejable en la Sierra usar vestidos de primavera. En la noche recomendamos el uso de un abrigo. En julio normalmente no se usa paraguas.

Aconsejamos dejar sus valores en los casilleros de su hotel. Cuando transite por la ciudad, especialmente por algunas calles del Centro de Quito, cuide permanentemente sus objetos de valor, (billeteras, cámaras fotográficas, video-filmadoras, etc.

Lleve siempre consigo algún documento de identificación, (pasaporte o cédula de identidad).

· Es preferible que usted beba agua enbotellada con gas o sin gas, la misma que es higiénica y saludable.Recomendamos consumir alimentos, en lo posible, cocidos y no comprar alimentos en la calle.

Para salir en vuelos internacionales hay que cancelar en el aeropuerto la cantidad de US$ 25,oo, como tasa para uso de instalaciones. No existe tasa de aeropuerto para los vuelos nacionales.

Recomendamos que el cambio de divisas se haga exclusivamente en bancos y casas de cambio, mas no en la calle.