Map of Paraguay




Paraguay achieved its independence from Spain in 1811. In the disastrous War of the Triple Alliance (1865-70) – between Paraguay and Argentina, Brazil, and Uruguay – Paraguay lost two-thirds of its adult males and much of its territory. The country stagnated economically for the next half century. Following the Chaco War of 1932-35 with Bolivia, Paraguay gained a large part of the Chaco lowland region. The 35-year military dictatorship of Alfredo STROESSNER ended in 1989, and, despite a marked increase in political infighting in recent years, Paraguay has held relatively free and regular presidential elections since the country’s return to democracy.




Central South America, northeast of Argentina

Geographic coordinates:

23 00 S, 58 00 W

Map references:

South America


total:  406,750 sq km

land:  397,300 sq km

water:  9,450 sq km

Area – comparative:

slightly smaller than California

Land boundaries:

total:  3,995 km

border countries:  Argentina 1,880 km, Bolivia 750 km, Brazil 1,365 km


0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims:

none (landlocked)


subtropical to temperate; substantial rainfall in the eastern portions, becoming semiarid in the far west


grassy plains and wooded hills east of Rio Paraguay; Gran Chaco region west of Rio Paraguay mostly low, marshy plain near the river, and dry forest and thorny scrub elsewhere

Elevation extremes:

lowest point:  junction of Rio Paraguay and Rio Parana 46 m

highest point:  Cerro Pero (Cerro Tres Kandu) 842 m

Natural resources:

hydropower, timber, iron ore, manganese, limestone

Land use:

arable land: 9.59%

permanent crops:  0.22

other:  90.19% (2011)

Irrigated land:

670 sq km (2003 est.)

Natural hazards:

local flooding in southeast (early September to June); poorly drained plains may become boggy (early October to June)

Environment – current issues:

deforestation; water pollution; inadequate means for waste disposal pose health risks for many urban residents; loss of wetlands

Environment – international agreements:

party to:  Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

Geography – note:

landlocked; lies between Argentina, Bolivia, and Brazil; population concentrated in southern part of country

Mission Ruins




6,703,860 (July 2014 est.)

Age structure:

0-14 years: 26.2% (male 892,315/female 861,915)
15-24 years: 20.5% (male 691,365/female 683,653)
25-54 years: 39.5% (male 1,326,281/female 1,323,194)
55-64 years: 7.2% (male 246,869/female 236,564)
65 years and over: 6.4% (male 206,089/female 235,615) (2014 est.)

Population growth rate:

1.19% (2014 est.)

Birth rate:

16.66 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)

Death rate:

4.64 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)

Net migration rate:

-0.08 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)

Sex ratio:

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.87 male(s)/female
total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2014 est.)

Infant mortality rate:

20.75 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 24.39 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 16.93 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:

total population:  78.8 years

male:  74.16 years

female:  79.56 years (2001 est.)

Total fertility rate:

1.96 children born/woman (2014 est.)

HIV/AIDS – adult prevalence rate:

0.3% (2012 est.)

HIV/AIDS – people living with HIV/AIDS:

13,100 (2012 est.)

HIV/AIDS – deaths:

300 (2012 est.)


noun:  Paraguayan(s)

adjective:  Paraguayan

Ethnic groups:

mestizo (mixed Spanish and Amerindian) 95%, other 5%


Roman Catholic 89.6%, Protestant 6.2%, other Christian 1.1%, other or unspecified 1.9%, none 1.1% (2002 census)


Spanish (official), Guarani (official)


definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 93.9%
male: 94.8%
female: 92.9% (2010 est.)

Iglesia Aregua



Country name:

conventional long form:  Republic of Paraguay

conventional short form:  Paraguay

local long form:  Republica del Paraguay

local short form:  Paraguay

Government type:

constitutional republic



Administrative divisions:

17 departments (departamentos, singular – departamento) and one capital city; Alto Paraguay, Alto Parana, Amambay, Asuncion (city), Boqueron, Caaguazu, Caazapa, Canindeyu, Central, Concepcion, Cordillera, Guaira, Itapua, Misiones, Neembucu, Paraguari, Presidente Hayes, San Pedro


14 May 1811 (from Spain)

National holiday:

Independence Day, 14 May (1811)


several previous; latest approved and promulgated 20 June 1992; amended 2011 (2011)

Legal system:

 civil law system with influences from Argentine, Spanish, Roman, and French civil law models; judicial review of legislative acts in Supreme Court of Justice


18 years of age; universal and compulsory up to age 75

Executive branch:

chief of state: President Horacio CARTES (since 15 August 2013); Vice President Juan AFARA Maciel (since 15 August 2013); note – the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Horacio CARTES (since 15 August 2013); Vice President Juan AFARA Maciel (since 15 August 2013)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for a single five-year term; election last held on 21 April 2013 (next to be held in April 2018)
election results: Horacio CARTES elected president; percent of vote – Horacio CARTES 45.8%, Efrain ALEGRE 36.94%, Mario FERREIRO 5.88%, Anibal CARRILLO 3.32%, other 8.06%

Legislative branch:

bicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional consists of the Chamber of Senators or Camara de Senadores (45 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camara de Diputados (80 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: Chamber of Senators – last held on 21 April 2013 (next to be held in April 2018); Chamber of Deputies – last held on 21 April 2013 (next to be held in April 2018)
election results: Chamber of Senators – percent of vote by party – NA; seats by party – ANR 19, PLRA 12, FG 5, PDP 3, Avanza Pais 2, UNACE 2, PEN 1, PPQ 1; Chamber of Deputies – percent of vote by party – NA; seats by party – ANR 44, PLRA 27, Avanza Pais 2, PEN 2, UNACE 2, FG 1, PPQ 1, other 1

Judicial branch:

highest court(s): Supreme Court of Justice or Corte Suprema de Justicia (consists of 9 justices divided 3 each into the Constitutional Court, Civil and Commercial Chamber, and Criminal Division
judge selection and term of office: justices proposed by the Council of Magistrates or Consejo de la Magistratura, a 6-member independent body, and appointed by the Chamber of Senators with presidential concurrence; judges appointed until mandatory retirement at age 75
subordinate courts: appellate courts; first instance courts; minor courts, including justices of the peace

Political parties and leaders:

Asociacion Nacional Republicana – Colorado Party or ANR [Lilian SAMANIEGO]
Avanza Pais coalition [Adolfo FERREIRO]
Broad Front coalition (Frente Guasu) or FG [Fernando Armindo LUGO Mendez]
Movimiento Union Nacional de Ciudadanos Eticos or UNACE [Jorge OVIEDO MATTO]
Patria Querida (Beloved Fatherland Party) or PPQ [Sebastian ACHA]
Partido del Movimiento al Socialismo or P-MAS [Camilo Ernesto SOARES Machado]
Partido Democratica Progresista or PDP [Desiree MASI]
Partido Encuentro Nacional or PEN [Fernando CAMACHO Paredes]
Partido Liberal Radical Autentico or PLRA [Miguel ABDON SAGUIER]
Partido Pais Solidario or PPS [Carlos Alberto FILIZZOLA Pallares]
Partido Popular Tekojoja [Sixto PEREIRA]

Political pressure groups and leaders:

Ahorristas Estafados or AE
National Coordinating Board of Campesino Organizations or MCNOC [Luis AGUAYO]
National Federation of Campesinos or FNC [Odilon ESPINOLA]
National Workers Central or CNT [Secretary General Juan TORRALES]
Paraguayan Workers Confederation or CPT
Roman Catholic Church
Unitary Workers Central or CUT [Jorge Guzman ALVARENGA Malgarejo]

International organization participation:


Diplomatic representation in the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Chargé d’Affaires Francisco BARREIRO (since 31 October 2013)
chancery: 2400 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 483-6960 through 6962
FAX: [1] (202) 234-4508
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, Miami, New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:

Ambassador James H. THESSIN (since 8 September 2011)
embassy: 1776 Avenida Mariscal Lopez, Casilla Postal 402, Asuncion
mailing address: Unit 4711, DPO AA 34036-0001
telephone: [595] (21) 213-715
FAX: [595] (21) 213-728

Flag description:

three equal, horizontal bands of red (top), white, and blue with an emblem centered in the white band; unusual flag in that the emblem is different on each side; the obverse (hoist side at the left) bears the national coat of arms (a yellow five-pointed star within a green wreath capped by the words REPUBLICA DEL PARAGUAY, all within two circles); the reverse (hoist side at the right) bears the seal of the treasury (a yellow lion below a red Cap of Liberty and the words Paz y Justicia (Peace and Justice) capped by the words REPUBLICA DEL PARAGUAY, all within two circles)

Parana River at Ayolas



Economy – overview:

Landlocked Paraguay has a market economy distinguished by a large informal sector, featuring re-export of imported consumer goods to neighboring countries, as well as the activities of thousands of microenterprises and urban street vendors. A large percentage of the population, especially in rural areas, derives its living from agricultural activity, often on a subsistence basis. Because of the importance of the informal sector, accurate economic measures are difficult to obtain. On a per capita basis, real income has stagnated at 1980 levels. The economy grew rapidly between 2003 and 2008 as growing world demand for commodities combined with high prices and favorable weather to support Paraguay’s commodity-based export expansion. Paraguay is the sixth largest soy producer in the world. Drought hit in 2008, reducing agricultural exports and slowing the economy even before the onset of the global recession. The economy fell 3.8% in 2009, as lower world demand and commodity prices caused exports to contract. The government reacted by introducing fiscal and monetary stimulus packages. Growth resumed at a 13% level in 2010, the highest in South America, but slowed in 2011-12 as the stimulus subsided and severe drought and outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease led to a drop in beef and other agricultural exports. The economy took another leap in 2013, largely due to strong export growth. Political uncertainty, corruption, limited progress on structural reform, and deficient infrastructure are the main obstacles to long-term growth.


purchasing power parity – $45.9 billion (2013 est.)

GDP – real growth rate:

12% (2013 est.)

-1.2% (2012 est.)
4.3% (2011 est.)

GDP – per capita:

purchasing power parity – $6,800 (2013 est.)

GDP – composition by sector:

agriculture:  20.4%

industry:  17.7%

services:: 61.9% (2013 est.)

Population below poverty line:

34.7% (2010 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:

lowest 10%:  1%

highest 10%:  41.1% (2010 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):

2.3% (2013 est.)

Labor force:

3.19 million (2013 est.)

Labor force – by occupation:

agriculture: 26.5%

industry: 18.5%
services: 55% (2008)

Unemployment rate:

6.6% (2013 est.)


revenues: $5.788 billion
expenditures: $6.287 billion (2013 est.)


sugar, cement, textiles, beverages, wood products, steel, base metals, electric power

Industrial production growth rate:

5.6% (2013 est.)

Electricity – production:
53.53 billion kWh (2010 est.)
Electricity – consumption:
6.778 billion kWh (2010 est.)
Electricity – exports:
46.12 billion kWh (2011 est.)
Electricity – imports:
0 kWh (2012 est.)
Electricity – installed generating capacity:
8.816 million kW (2010 est.)
Electricity – from fossil fuels:
0.1% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
Electricity – from nuclear fuels:
0% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
Electricity – from hydroelectric plants:
99.9% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
Electricity – from other renewable sources:
0% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
Crude oil – production:
2,000 bbl/day (2012 est.)
Crude oil – exports:
0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Crude oil – imports:
0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Crude oil – proved reserves:
0 bbl (1 January 2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products – production:
0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Refined petroleum products – consumption:
26,820 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Refined petroleum products – exports:
0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Refined petroleum products – imports:
31,290 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Natural gas – production:
0 cu m (2011 est.)
Natural gas – consumption:
0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas – exports:
0 cu m (2011 est.)
Natural gas – imports:
0 cu m (2011 est.)
Natural gas – proved reserves:
0 cu m (1 January 2013 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
3.987 million Mt (2011 est.)

Currency code:



guarani (PYG)

Exchange rates:

guarani (PYG) per US dollar –
4,315.1 (2013 est.)
4,424.9 (2012 est.)
4,735.5 (2010 est.)
4,965.4 (2009)
4,337.7 (2008)

Fiscal year:

calendar year

Foz de Yguazu<br /> Thomas Calvin Butler<br /> 29 Apr 2001




Telephones – main lines in use:
376,000 (2012)
Telephones – mobile cellular:
6.79 million (2012)
Telephone system:
general assessment: the fixed-line market is a state monopoly and fixed-line telephone service is meager; principal switching center is in Asuncion
domestic: deficiencies in provision of fixed-line service have resulted in a rapid expansion of mobile-cellular services fostered by competition among multiple providers
international: country code – 595; satellite earth station – 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2010)
Broadcast media:
6 privately owned TV stations; about 75 commercial and community radio stations; 1 state-owned radio network (2010)
Internet country code:
Internet hosts:
280,658 (2012)
Internet users:
1.105 million (2009)




total: 36 km

country comparison to the world: 132



total: 32,059 km
paved: 4,860 km
unpaved: 27,199 km (2010)



3,100 km (primarily on the Paraguay and Paraná river systems) (2012)

Ports and harbors:

river port(s): Asuncion, Villeta, San Antonio, Encarnacion (Parana)


Airports – with paved runways:

total: 15
over 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 7
914 to 1,523 m: 5 (2013)


799 (2013)

Airports – with unpaved runways:

total: 784
1,524 to 2,437 m: 23
914 to 1,523 m: 290
under 914 m:
471 (2013)

a more sedate pace<br /> Stella  Neale<br /> 29 Oct 2001

Capital y ciudades de importancia.


   Transnational Issues

Disputes – international:
unruly region at convergence of Argentina-Brazil-Paraguay borders is locus of money laundering, smuggling, arms and illegal narcotics trafficking, and fundraising for extremist organizations

Illicit drugs:

major illicit producer of cannabis, most or all of which is consumed in Brazil, Argentina, and Chile; transshipment country for Andean cocaine headed for Brazil, other Southern Cone markets, and Europe; weak border controls, extensive corruption and money-laundering activity, especially in the Tri-Border Area; weak anti-money-laundering laws and enforcement

Thanks  to: of Paraguay



Nombre oficial:
República del Paraguay

Situado en el hemisferio sur ocupa el centro de América del sur. El Paraguay cuenta con una superficie de 406.752 kilómetros cuadrados. Su territorio está comprendido entre los paralelos 19.18 y 27.36 de latitud sur y entre los meridianos 54.19 y 62.38 de longitud oeste. País de escaso relieve el Paraguay está dividido por el río Paraguay en dos regiones naturales de morfología distinta, la oriental o del Paraná y la occidental adonde se extiende la vasta llanura semiárida del Chaco que ocupa las dos terceras partes del territorio. Es un país mediterráneo. Su salida al mar se hace a través de otros países como Uruguay, Argentina, Brasil y Chile. 

La capital es Asunción (Nuestra Sra. Santa María de la Asunción) fundada el 15 de agosto de 1537 por Juan de Zalazar y Espinoza) siendo esta además el puerto principal. Otras ciudades importantes son: Encarnación, Concepción, Ciudad del Este, Villarica, Coronel Oviedo, Pedro Juan Caballero.


El clima es en general cálido con una temperatura anual media de 24 grados. El trópico de Capricornio atraviesa el país. Las lluvias son abundantes y sobre todo en la región Oriental y caen con mayor frecuencia en el verano (diciembre a febrero)

Con una 5.400.000 habitantes (de acuerdo al censo de 1995), de los cuales el 50,54% pertenece a la zona urbana y un 49,46% pertenece a la zona rural, el Paraguay es un país poco poblado, con una densidad de poco más de 13 habitantes por km cuadrado.

Forma del Estado y de Gobierno:
La República del Paraguay es para siempre libre e independiente. Se constituye en Estado social de derecho, unitario, indivisible y descentralizado. La República del Paraguay adopta para su gobierno la democracia representativa, participativa y pluralista, fundada en el reconocimiento de la dignidad humana (Art.1 CN).
El Gobierno es ejercido por los Poderes Legislativo, Ejecutivo y Judicial. 

Idiomas oficiales:
Español y Guaraní. Paraguay es el único país bilingüe de América. 

A partir de la Constitución de 1992, se consagra la separación la Iglesia o Las iglesias y el Estado, siguiendo una ya antigua  tendencia mundial en materia de constitucionalismo, aunque se ha destinado un artículo a reconocer los aportes de la Iglesia Católica en la formación y en la cultura del país.

Economía y moneda:
La agricultura y la ganadería son las principales fuentes de riqueza. El subsuelo y los recursos minerales son poco explotados, sin embargo existen yacimientos de hierro, manganeso, cobre, carbón, mica y petróleo (Chaco). La industria se deriva casi en su totalidad de la agricultura y la ganadería y se reduce a la elaboración de yerba mate, aceites vegetales, esencia de “petit grain”, fabricación de azúcar, carnicos y pieles, y la fabricación de maderas. La unidad monetaria es el Guaraní siendo el Banco Central del Paraguay el ente emisor

Servicios públicos:
La energía eléctrica es suministrada por la ANDE (Asociación Nacional de Electricidad). El servicio telefónico es brindado por la ANTELCO (Asociación Nacional de Telecomunicaciones) y el agua corriente por la CORPOSANA (Corporación Sanitaria Nacional). 

Fuentes de energía:
La principal fuente de energía es la hidroeléctrica. El Paraguay cuenta con dos represas de administración binacional, Itaipú y Yacyretá. 

La agricultura ocupa sin lugar a dudas el principal factor de desarrollo y producción entre los productos principales están los siguientes: soja, trigo, caña de azúcar, algodón, maní, maíz, poroto, tabaco, mandioca, frutilla, papa, tomate, sandía, locote, banana, piña, naranja, yerba mate. 

Las sábanas del Chaco y el departamento de Misiones son los sitios donde se encuentra radicada la explotación ganadera. Entre las principales se encuentran las razas Brahman, Nelore, Santa Gertrudis y Holando. 

La industria paraguaya en general poco desarrollada se reduce fundamentalmente a la manufacturación de productos derivados de la agricultura y la ganadería sus dos principales fuentes de recursos, entre ellas están las siguientes: forestal, aceitera, yerbatera, esencias, de la mandioca, tabacalera, azucarera, tanino, textil, frigorífica, cemento y cal, artesanal, turismo. 

Principales grupos indígenas:
angaité, ayoreo, chamacoco, chiripá, Nivaclé (chulupí), eklenjuy, toba, guaná, guayakí, guarayo, lengua, mbya, maká, choroti (manjui), paí tavyterá, sanapaná, tapieté (guasurango), toba-maskoy, toba qom, chiriguano (guarayo).