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Bolivia    Introduction  
Background: Bolivia, named after independence fighter Simon BOLIVAR, broke away from Spanish rule in 1825; much of its subsequent history has consisted of a series of nearly 200 coups and countercoups. Democratic civilian rule was established in 1982, but leaders have faced difficult problems of deep-seated poverty, social unrest, and illegal drug production. In December 2005, Bolivians elected Movement Toward Socialism leader Evo MORALES president – by the widest margin of any leader since the restoration of civilian rule in 1982 – after he ran on a promise to change the country’s traditional political class and empower the nation’s poor, indigenous majority. In December 2009, President MORALES easily won reelection, and his party took control of the legislative branch of the government, which will allow him to continue his process of change. In October 2011, the country held its first judicial elections to select judges for the four highest courts. La Paz La Paz
Bolivia    Geography  
Location: Central South America, southwest of Brazil
Geographic coordinates: 17 00 S, 65 00 W
Map references: South America
Area: total:  1,098,581 sq km land:  1,083,301 sq kmwater:  15,280 sq km
Area – comparative: slightly less than three times the size of Montana
Land boundaries: total:  7,252 km border countries: Argentina 942 km, Brazil 3,403 km, Chile 942 km, Paraguay 753 km, Peru 1,212 km
Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: none (landlocked)
Climate: varies with altitude; humid and tropical to cold and semiarid
Terrain: rugged Andes Mountains with a highland plateau (Altiplano), hills, lowland plains of the Amazon Basin
Elevation extremes: lowest point:  Rio Paraguay 90 m highest point:  Nevado Sajama 6,542 m
Natural resources: tin, natural gas, petroleum, zinc, tungsten, antimony, silver, iron, lead, gold, timber, hydropower
Land use: arable land: 3.49%permanent pastures:  0.2%other:  96.31% (2011)
Irrigated land: 1,282 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards: flooding in the northeast (March-April)volcanism: volcanic activity in Andes Mountains on the border with Chile; historically active volcanoes in this region are Irruputuncu (elev. 5,163 m), which last erupted in 1995, and Olca-Paruma
Environment – current issues: the clearing of land for agricultural purposes and the international demand for tropical timber are contributing to deforestation; soil erosion from overgrazing and poor cultivation methods (including slash-and-burn agriculture); desertification; loss of biodiversity; industrial pollution of water supplies used for drinking and irrigation
Environment – international agreements: party to:  Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlandssigned, but not ratified:  Environmental Modification, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection
Geography – note: landlocked; shares control of Lago Titicaca, world’s highest navigable lake (elevation 3,805 m), with Peru La Paz Plaza Murillo Plaza Murillo
Bolivia    People  
Population: 10,631,486 (July 2014 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 33.3% (male 1,805,121/female 1,737,794)

15-24 years: 19.8% (male 1,063,823/female 1,037,320)
25-54 years: 36.3% (male 1,878,736/female 1,979,819)
55-64 years: 5.7% (male 280,809/female 322,057)
65 years and over: 4.9% (male 232,514/female 293,493) (2014 est.)
Population growth rate: 1.6% (2014 est.)
Birth rate:  23.28 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)
Death rate:  6.59 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)
Net migration rate: -0.69 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2014 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 38.61 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 42.23 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 34.81 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 68.55 years
male: 65.78 years
female: 71.45 years (2014 est.)
Total fertility rate: 2.8 children born/woman (2014 est.)
HIV/AIDS – adult prevalence rate: 0.3% (2012 est.)
HIV/AIDS – people living with HIV/AIDS: 15,900 (2012 est.)
HIV/AIDS – deaths: 1,300 (2012 est.)
Nationality: noun:  Bolivian(s)adjective:  Bolivian
Ethnic groups: Quechua 30%, mestizo (mixed white and Amerindian ancestry) 30%, Aymara 25%, white 15%
Religions: Roman Catholic 95%, Protestant (Evangelical Methodist) 5%
Languages: Spanish (official) 60.7%, Quechua (official) 21.2%, Aymara (official) 14.6%, Guarani (official), foreign languages 2.4%, other 1.2% 
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 91.2%
male: 95.8%
female: 86.8% (2009 est.) llamas grazing on the Altiplano
Bolivia    Government  
Country name: conventional long form:  Plurinational State of Boliviaconventional short form:  Bolivialocal long form:  Estado Plurinacional de Bolivialocal short form:  Bolivia
Government type: republic; note – the new constitution defines Bolivia as a “Social Unitarian State”
Capital: name: La Paz (administrative capital); Sucre (constitutional capital)

geographic coordinates: 16 30 S, 68 09 W
time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 9 departments (departamentos, singular – departamento); Chuquisaca, Cochabamba, Beni, La Paz, Oruro, Pando, Potosi, Santa Cruz, Tarija
Independence: 6 August 1825 (from Spain)
National holiday: Independence Day, 6 August (1825)
Constitution: many previous; latest drafted 6 August 2006 – 9 December 2008, approved by referendum 25 January 2009, effective 7 February 2009; amended 2013 (2013)
Legal system: civil law system with influences from Roman, Spanish, canon (religious), French, and indigenous law
Suffrage: 18 years of age, universal and compulsory
Executive branch: chief of state: President Juan Evo MORALES Ayma (since 22 January 2006); Vice President Alvaro GARCIA Linera (since 22 January 2006); note – the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Juan Evo MORALES Ayma (since 22 January 2006); Vice President Alvaro GARCIA Linera (since 22 January 2006); note – the president is both chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections: resident and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for a five-year term and are eligible for re-election once; election last held on 6 December 2009 (next to be held in 2014)
election results: Juan Evo MORALES Ayma reelected president; percent of vote – Juan Evo MORALES Ayma 64%; Manfred REYES VILLA 26%; Samuel DORIA MEDINA Arana 6%; Rene JOAQUINO 2%; other 2%
Legislative branch:
bicameral Plurinational Legislative Assembly or Asamblea Legislativa Plurinacional consists of Chamber of Senators or Camara de Senadores (36 seats; members are elected by proportional representation from party lists to serve five-year terms) and Chamber of Deputies or Camara de Diputados (130 seats total; 70 uninominal deputies directly elected from a single district, 7 “special” indigenous deputies directly elected from non-contiguous indigenous districts, and 53 plurinominal deputies elected by proportional representation from party lists; all deputies serve five-year terms)
elections: Chamber of Senators and Chamber of Deputies – last held on 6 December 2009 (next to be held in 2014)
election results: Chamber of Senators – percent of vote by party – NA; seats by party – MAS 26, PPB-CN 10; Chamber of Deputies – percent of vote by party – NA; seats by party – MAS 89, PPB-CN 36, UN 3, AS 2; note – as of 15 February 2013, the composition of the Chamber of Deputies was: MAS 88, PPB-CN 37, UN 3, AS 2
Judicial branch:
highest court(s): Supreme Court or Tribunal Supremo de Justicia (consists of 12 judges); Plurinational Constitutional Tribunal (consists of 7 primary and 7 alternate magistrates); Plurinational Electoral Organ (consists of 7 members);
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court and Plurinational Constitutional Tribunal judges elected by popular vote from list of candidates pre-selected by Plurinational Legislative Assembly for 6-year terms); Plurinational Electoral Organ members – 6 judges elected by the Assembly and 1 appointed by the president; judges and members serve 6-year terms
note: the 2009 constitution reformed the procedure for selecting judicial officials for the Supreme Court, Constitutional Tribunal, and the Plurinational Electoral Organ by direct national vote, which occurred in October 2011
subordinate courts: Agro-Environmental Court; Council of the Judiciary; District Courts (in each of the 9 administrative departments)
Political parties and leaders: Bacada Indigena or BI

Bolivia-National Convergence or PPB-CN [Adrian OLIVA]
Fearless Movement or MSM [Juan DE GRANADO Cosio]
Movement Toward Socialism or MAS [Juan Evo MORALES Ayma]
National Unity or UN [Samuel DORIA MEDINA Arana]
People or Gente [Roman LOAYZA]
Social Alliance or AS [Rene JOAQUINO]
Social Democratic Movement or MDS [Ruben COSTAS]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Bolivian Workers Central or COB
Federation of Neighborhood Councils of El Alto or FEJUVE
Landless Movement or MST
National Coordinator for Change or CONALCAM
Sole Confederation of Campesino Workers of Bolivia or CSUTCB
other: Cocalero groups; indigenous organizations (including Confederation of Indigenous Peoples of Eastern Bolivia or CIDOB and National Council of Ayullus and Markas of Quollasuyu or CONAMAQ); Interculturales union or CSCIB; labor unions (including the Central Bolivian Workers’ Union or COB and Cooperative Miners Federation or FENCOMIN)
International organization participation: CAN, CD, CELAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, Mercosur (associate), MIGA, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNASUR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d’Affaires Freddy BERSATTI Tudela

chancery: 3014 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 483-4410
FAX: [1] (202) 328-3712
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, Miami, New York
note: as of September 2008, the US has expelled the Bolivian ambassador to the US
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d’Affaires Aruna AMIRTHANAYAGAM (since 28 February 2014)

embassy: Avenida Arce 2780, Casilla 425, La Paz
mailing address: P. O. Box 425, La Paz; APO AA 34032
telephone: [591] (2) 216-8000
FAX: [591] (2) 216-8111
note: in September 2008, the Bolivian Government expelled the US Ambassador to Bolivia, and the countries have yet to reinstate ambassadors
Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), yellow, and green with the coat of arms centered on the yellow band; similar to the flag of Ghana, which has a large black five-pointed star centered in the yellow band reed boat
Bolivia    Economy  
Economy – overview: Bolivia is a resource rich country with strong growth attributed to captive markets for natural gas exports. However, the country remains one of the least developed countries in Latin America because of state-oriented policies that deter investment and growth. Following a disastrous economic crisis during the early 1980s, reforms spurred private investment, stimulated economic growth, and cut poverty rates in the 1990s. The period 2003-05 was characterized by political instability, racial tensions, and violent protests against plans – subsequently abandoned – to export Bolivia’s newly discovered natural gas reserves to large Northern Hemisphere markets. In 2005, the government passed a controversial hydrocarbons law that imposed significantly higher royalties and required foreign firms then operating under risk-sharing contracts to surrender all production to the state energy company in exchange for a predetermined service fee. The global recession slowed growth, but Bolivia recorded the highest growth rate in South America during 2009. High commodity prices since 2010 sustained rapid growth and large trade surpluses. However, a lack of foreign investment in the key sectors of mining and hydrocarbons, along with conflict among social groups pose challenges for the Bolivian economy.
GDP: $59.11 billion (2013 est.)
GDP – real growth rate: 6.8% (2013 est.)
GDP – per capita: purchasing power parity – $5,500 (2013 est.)
GDP – composition by sector: agriculture: 9.2%

industry: 38.5%
services: 52.3% (2013 est.)
Population below poverty line: 45%
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 1.8%
highest 10%: 46% (2012)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 6.5% (2013 est.)
Labor force: 4.922 million (2012 est.)
Labor force – by occupation:
agriculture: 32%
industry: 27.4%
services: 40.6% (2009 est.)
Unemployment rate: 7.4% (2013 est.)
Budget: revenues: $15.16 billion
expenditures: $15.13 billion (2013 est.)
Industries: mining, smelting, petroleum, food and beverages, tobacco, handicrafts, clothing, jewelry
Industrial production growth rate: 5.6% (2013 est.)
Electricity – production: 7.375 billion kWh (2013 est.)
Electricity – production by source: 63.6% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
hydro: 34.9% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
nuclear: 0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
other: 1.5% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity – consumption: 6.944 billion kWh (2012 est.)
Electricity – exports: 0 kWh (2013 est.)
Electricity – imports: 0 kWh (2013 est.)
Agriculture – products: quinoa, soybeans, coffee, coca, cotton, corn, sugarcane, rice, potatoes; Brazil nuts; timber
Exports: $12.16 billion (2013 est.)
Exports – commodities: natural gas, soybeans and soy products, crude petroleum, zinc ore, tin
Exports – partners: Brazil 41.8%, US 18.4%, Argentina 7.3%, Peru 4.9% (2012)
Imports: $9.282 billion (2013 est.)
Imports – commodities: petroleum products, plastics, paper, aircraft and aircraft parts, prepared foods, automobiles, insecticides
Imports – partners: Chile 21.3%, Brazil 20.3%, Argentina 10.9%, US 10.1%, Peru 6.5%, Venezuela 6.2%, China 4.9% (2012)
Debt – external: $5.265 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment – at home: $10.56 billion (31 December 2013)
Currency: boliviano (BOB)
Currency code: BOB
Exchange rates: bolivianos (BOB) per US dollar –

6.91 (2013 est.)
6.94 (2012 est.)
7.0167 (2010 est.)
7.07 (2009)
7.253 (2008)
Fiscal year: calendar year hydrofoil
Bolivia    Communications  
Telephones – main lines in use: 880,600 (2012)
Telephones – mobile cellular: 9.494 million (2012)
Telephone system:
general assessment: Bolivian National Telecommunications Company was privatized in 1995 but re-nationalized in 2007; the primary trunk system is being expanded and employs digital microwave radio relay; some areas are served by fiber-optic cable; system operations, reliability, and coverage have steadily improved.
domestic: most telephones are concentrated in La Paz, Santa Cruz, and other capital cities; mobile-cellular telephone use expanding rapidly and, in 2011, teledensity reached about 80 per 100 persons
international: country code – 591; satellite earth station – 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2011)
Broadcast media:
large number of radio and TV stations broadcasting with private media outlets dominating; state-owned and private radio and TV stations generally operating freely, although both pro-government and anti-government groups have attacked media outlets in response to their reporting (2010)
Internet country code: .bo
Internet hosts: 9 (2000)180,988 (2012)
Internet users:  1.103 million (2009)
Bolivia    Transportation    
Roadways: total:  80,488 kmpaved: 11,993 kmunpaved:  68,495 km (2010)
Railways: total: 3,652 km
narrow gauge: 3,652 km 1.000-m gauge (2010)
Waterways: 10,000 km (commercially navigable almost exclusively in the northern and eastern parts of the country) (2012)
Pipelines: gas 5,457 km; liquid petroleum gas 51 km; oil 2,511 km; refined products 1,627 km (2013)
Ports and terminals :  river port(s): Puerto Aguirre (Paraguay/Parana)

note: Bolivia has free port privileges in maritime ports in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Paraguay
Merchant marine: total: 18

by type: bulk carrier 1, cargo 14, petroleum tanker 1, roll on/roll off 2
foreign-owned: 5 (Syria 4, UK 1, (2010)
Airports: 855 (2013)
Airports – with paved runways: total: 21

over 3,047 m: 5
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 6 (2013)
Airports – with unpaved runways: total: 834

over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 47
914 to 1,523 m: 151
under 914 m:
631 (2013)

Challapampa, Isla del Sol

Bolivia    Military  
Military branches: Bolivian Armed Forces: Bolivian Army (Ejercito Boliviano, EB), Bolivian Naval Force (Fuerza Naval Boliviana, FNB; includes Marines), Bolivian Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Boliviana, FAB) (2013)
Military manpower – military age: males age 16-49: 2,472,490

females age 16-49: 2,535,768 (2010 est.)
Military manpower – availability: males age 16-49: 2,472,490

females age 16-49: 2,535,768 (2010 est.)
Military manpower – fit for military service: males age 16-49: 1,762,260

females age 16-49: 2,013,281 (2010 est.)
Military manpower – reaching military age annually: males 108,334
females 104,945 (2010 est.)
Military expenditures – :percent of GDP: 1.47% of GDP (2012)

1.47% of GDP (2011)
1.47% of GDP (2010)
Bolivia    Transnational Issues  
Disputes – international: Chile and Peru rebuff Bolivia’s reactivated claim to restore the Atacama corridor, ceded to Chile in 1884, but Chile offers instead unrestricted but not sovereign maritime access through Chile for Bolivian natural gas; contraband smuggling, human trafficking, and illegal narcotic trafficking are problems in the porous areas of the border with Argentina
Illicit drugs: world’s third-largest cultivator of coca (after Colombia and Peru) with an estimated 30,000 hectares under cultivation in 2011, a decrease of 13 percent over 2010; third largest producer of cocaine, estimated at 265 metric tons potential pure cocaine in 2011, a 29 percent increase over 2010; transit country for Peruvian and Colombian cocaine destined for Brazil, Argentina, Chile, Paraguay, and Europe; weak border controls; some money-laundering activity related to narcotics trade; major cocaine consumption (2013)

Thanks to:


Extensión: 1.098.581 Km2

Límites geográficos

        Situada en el centro de América del Sur, Bolivia limita al norte y al este con Brasil, al sudeste con Paraguay, al sur con Argentina, al sudoeste con Chile y al oeste con Perú.

Principales accidentes orográficos y fluviales

        En Bolivia se distinguen tres zonas geográficas:

1.      La zona andina, que abarca un 20% del territorio nacional. En ella se distingue la Cordillera Occidental o Volcánica, la Cordillera Oriental o Real y la Meseta Altiplánica, situada entre los 3.000 y los 4.000 metros sobre el nivel del mar. En esta zona se encuentran algunas de las cumbres más elevadas de América (de hasta 6.542 metros), así como el Lago Titicaca, el mayor de Sudamérica y el lago navegable más elevado del mundo (3.810 metros sobre el nivel del mar).

2.      La zona subandina, que abarca un 15% del territorio, comprende una franja de los Andes que se extiende hacia al este y norte de la Cordillera Oriental formando sierras que encierran fértiles valles y cuencas de altitudes de entre 1.800 y 3.000 metros. Hacia el norte, la Cordillera Oriental se desploma verticalmente sobre el llano, formando valles estrechos y profundos de vegetación tropical conocidos con el nombre de Yungas.

3.      La zona de los llanos, que abarca el 65% del territorio, está situada a los pies de la Cordillera Oriental, en sus flancos noreste, este y sudeste.. Son tierras bajas, formadas por llanuras y extensas selvas y escasamente pobladas.

        La hidrografía del país se divide en tres sistemas: la Cuenca del Amazonas, al norte, la Cuenca Lacustre , al oeste (Lago Titicaca), y la Cuenca del Plata, al sur. Existen veintiún ríos navegables, siendo el más largo el Mamoré.

Clima y temperaturas

        El clima boliviano está influido tanto por la situación geográfica del país en plena zona ecuatorial, al norte del Trópico de Capricornio, como por la altitud sobre el nivel del mar. La proximidad con el ecuador hace que las oscilaciones de temperatura entre el invierno y el verano sea menor de 10ºC.

        En la zona andina se registran las temperaturas más bajas del país, que pueden llegar hasta los 25ºC. bajo cero. La temperatura máxima es de 17ºC. y la media de 10ºC.

        La zona subandina tiene un clima templado, con medias de entre los 16ºC. y los 20ºC.

        La zona de los llanos, de clima cálido tropical, registra una temperatura media anual de entre 22ºC. y 25ºC.

Régimen pluviométrico según zonas

        Las lluvias se producen entre los meses de noviembre y marzo, excepto en la zona de los llanos amazónicos y de la Cuenca del Plata donde se registran precipitaciones durante todo el año.


  B.- Datos políticos y económicos

Forma de gobierno

        Bolivia tiene un régimen democrático presidencialista regido por la Constitución de la República. El Presidente y el Vicepresidente son elegidos por sufragio universal directo para un mandato de cinco años, y no pueden ser reelegidos para el período inmediato.

                                    San Pedro, Coroico River Valley

        El país está estructurado política y administrativamente en 9 departamentos, 112 provincias, 312 municipios y 1.384 cantones.

        Constitucionalmente, la capital de la República es Sucre y la sede del Gobierno es la ciudad de La Paz.

Número de habitantes: 10,631,486 (Julio 2014 est.)

Tasa de crecimiento poblacional: 1,6% (2014)

Densidad demográfica: 7,6 hab/km2 (2000)

Distribución de la población por edades

        La población boliviana es joven: el 40% tiene menos de catorce años y tan solo un 3,9% ha pasado de los sesenta y cinco años (1998).

Población activa y tasa de paro

        La población activa ronda los tres millones de habitantes (2.999.840 en 1999), con una tasa de desempleo urbano del 4,4% y una subocupación del 10,01% (1997)

Lenguas oficiales

        El idioma oficial es el español. También se hablan quechua, aymara y guaraní.

Salario mínimo

        El salario mínimo boliviano se sitúa en torno a los 40 US$ al mes.

PIB per cápita: 1.020 $ (2.000)

Crecimiento del PIB.2,5% (2.001)

                                    Palacio Prefectural, Plaza de Septiembre Santa Cruz