El Salvador

Map of El Salvador

El Salvador



El Salvador achieved independence from Spain in 1821 and from the Central American Federation in 1839. A 12-year civil war, which cost the lives of some 75,000 people, was brought to a close in 1992 when the government and leftist rebels signed a treaty that provided for military and political reforms.

El Salvador



Middle America, bordering the North Pacific Ocean, between Guatemala and Honduras

Geographic coordinates:

13 50 N, 88 55 W

Map references:

Central America and the Caribbean


total:  21,041 sq km

land:  20,721 sq km

water:  320 sq km

Area – comparative:

slightly smaller than Massachusetts

Land boundaries:

total:  590 km

border countries:  Guatemala 199 km, Honduras 391 km


307 km

Maritime claims:

territorial sea:  200 NM


tropical; rainy season (May to October); dry season (November to April); tropical on coast; temperate in uplands


mostly mountains with narrow coastal belt and central plateau

Elevation extremes:

lowest point:  Pacific Ocean 0 m

highest point:  Cerro El Pital 2,730 m

Natural resources:

hydropower, geothermal power, petroleum, arable land

Land use:

arable land: 31.61%
permanent crops: 10.93%
other: 57.46% (2011)

Irrigated land:

449.9 sq km (2003)

Natural hazards:

known as the Land of Volcanoes; frequent and sometimes very destructive earthquakes and volcanic activity

Environment – current issues:

deforestation; soil erosion; water pollution; contamination of soils from disposal of toxic wastes; Hurricane Mitch damage

Environment – international agreements:

party to:  Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified:  Law of the Sea

Geography – note:

smallest Central American country and only one without a coastline on Caribbean Sea

El Salvador



6,125,512 (July 2014 est.)

Age structure:

0-14 years: 28.1% (male 882,185/female 837,646)
15-24 years: 20.8% (male 640,322/female 635,409)
25-54 years: 37.5% (male 1,056,779/female 1,243,220)
55-64 years: 6.6% (male 182,937/female 224,019)
65 years and over: 6.7% (male 187,664/female 235,331) (2014 est.)

Population growth rate:

0.27% (2014 est.)

Birth rate:

16.79 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)

Death rate:

5.67 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)

Net migration rate:

-8.44 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)

Sex ratio:

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.85 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/female
total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2014 est.)

Infant mortality rate:

total: 18.44 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 20.52 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 16.27 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:

total population: 74.18 years

male: 70.9 years
female: 77.62 years (2014 est.)

Total fertility rate:

1.95 children born/woman (2014 est.)

HIV/AIDS – adult prevalence rate:

0.6% (2012 est.)

HIV/AIDS – people living with HIV/AIDS:

24,900 (2012 est.)

HIV/AIDS – deaths:

1,000 (2012 est.)


noun:  Salvadoran(s)

adjective:  Salvadoran

Ethnic groups:

mestizo 86.3%, white 12.7%, Amerindian 1% (2007 census)


Roman Catholic 57.1%, Protestant 21.2%, Jehovah’s Witnesses 1.9%, Mormon 0.7%, other religions 2.3%, none 16.8% (2003 est.)


Spanish, Nahua (among some Amerindians)


definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 84.5%
male: 87.1%
female: 82.3% (2010 est.)

El Salvador


Country name:

conventional long form:  Republic of El Salvador

conventional short form:  El Salvador

local long form:  Republica de El Salvador

local short form:  El Salvador

Government type:



San Salvador

Administrative divisions:

14 departments (departamentos, singular – departamento); Ahuachapan, Cabanas, Chalatenango, Cuscatlan, La Libertad, La Paz, La Union, Morazan, San Miguel, San Salvador, Santa Ana, San Vicente, Sonsonate, Usulutan


15 September 1821 (from Spain)

National holiday:

Independence Day, 15 September (1821)


23 December 1983

Legal system:

based on civil and Roman law, with traces of common law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations


18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:

chief of state:  President Francisco FLORES Perez (since 1 June 1999); Vice President Carlos QUINTANILLA Schmidt (since 1 June 1999); note – the president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government:  President Francisco FLORES Perez (since 1 June 1999); Vice President Carlos QUINTANILLA Schmidt (since 1 June 1999); note – the president is both the chief of state and head of government

cabinet:  cabinet selected by the president

elections:  president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for five-year terms; election last held 7 March 1999 (next to be held NA March 2004)

election results:  Francisco FLORES Perez elected president; percent of vote – Francisco FLORES (ARENA) 52%, Facundo GUARDADO (FMLN) 29%, Ruben ZAMORA (CDU) 7.5%, other (no individual above 3%) 11.5%

Legislative branch:

unicameral Legislative Assembly or Asamblea Legislativa (84 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote to serve three-year terms)

elections:  last held 12 March 2000 (next to be held NA March 2003)

election results:  percent of vote by party – ARENA 36.1%, FMLN 35.14%, PCN 8.76%, PDC 7.08%, CD 5.32%, PAN 3.75%, USC 1.47%, PLD 1.29%; seats by party – ARENA 28, FMLN 31, PCN 14, PDC 5, CD 3, PAN 1, independent 2

Judicial branch:

Supreme Court or Corte Suprema (judges are selected by the Legislative Assembly)

Political parties and leaders:

Christian Democratic Party or PDC [Rene AGUILUZ]; Democratic Convergence or CD (includes PSD, MNR, MPSC) [Ruben ZAMORA, secretary general]; Democratic Party or PD [Jorge MELENDEZ]; Farabundo Marti National Liberation Front or FMLN [Fabio CASTILLO]; Liberal Democratic Party or PLD [Kirio Waldo SALGADO, president]; National Action Party or PAN [Gustavo Rogelio SALINAS, secretary general]; National Conciliation Party or PCN [Ciro CRUZ Zepeda, president]; National Republican Alliance or ARENA [Walter ARAUJO]; Social Christian Union or USC (formed by the merger of Christian Social Renewal Party or PRSC and Unity Movement or MU) [Abraham RODRIGUEZ, president]

Political pressure groups and leaders:

labor organizations – Electrical Industry Union of El Salvador or SIES; Federation of the Construction Industry, Similar Transport and other activities, or FESINCONTRANS; National Confederation of Salvadoran Workers or CNTS; National Union of Salvadoran Workers or UNTS; Port Industry Union of El Salvador or SIPES; Salvadoran Union of Ex-Petrolleros and Peasant Workers or USEPOC; Salvadoran Workers Central or CTS; Workers Union of Electrical Corporation or STCEL; business organizations – National Association of Small Enterprise or ANEP; Salvadoran Assembly Industry Association or ASIC; Salvadoran Industrial Association or ASI

International organization participation:


Diplomatic representation in the US:

chief of mission:  Ambassador Rene Antonio LEON Rodriguez

chancery:  2308 California Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone:  [1] (202) 265-9671

consulate(s) general:  Chicago, Dallas, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, and San Francisco

consulate(s):  Boston

Diplomatic representation from the US:

chief of mission:  Ambassador Rose M. LIKINS

embassy:  Final Boulevard Santa Elenal, Antiguo Cuscatlan, La Libertad, San Salvador

mailing address:  Unit 3116, APO AA 34023

telephone:  [503] 278-4444

FAX:  [503] 278-6011

Flag description:

three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and blue with the national coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms features a round emblem encircled by the words REPUBLICA DE EL SALVADOR EN LA AMERICA CENTRAL; similar to the flag of Nicaragua, which has a different coat of arms centered in the white band – it features a triangle encircled by the words REPUBLICA DE NICARAGUA on top and AMERICA CENTRAL on the bottom; also similar to the flag of Honduras, which has five blue stars arranged in an X pattern centered in the white band

El Salvador


Economy – overview:

El Salvador is a struggling Central American economy which has been suffering from a weak tax collection system, factory closings, the aftermaths of Hurricane Mitch of 1998 and the devastating earthquakes of early 2001, and weak world coffee prices. On the bright side, in recent years inflation has fallen to single digit levels, and total exports have grown substantially. The trade deficit has been offset by remittances (an estimated $1.6 billion in 2000) from Salvadorans living abroad and by external aid. As of 1 January 2001, the US dollar was made legal tender alongside the colon.


purchasing power parity – $24 billion (2000 est.)

GDP – real growth rate:

2.5% (2000 est.)

GDP – per capita:

purchasing power parity – $4,000 (2000 est.)

GDP – composition by sector:

agriculture:  12%

industry:  28%

services:  60% (1999 est.)

Population below poverty line:

48% (1999 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:

lowest 10%:  1.2%

highest 10%:  38.3% (1995)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):

2.5% (2000 est.)

Labor force:

2.35 million (1999)

Labor force – by occupation:

agriculture 30%, industry 15%, services 55% (1999 est.)

Unemployment rate:

10% (2000 est.)


revenues:  $1.8 billion

expenditures:  $2.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1999 est.)


food processing, beverages, petroleum, chemicals, fertilizer, textiles, furniture, light metals

Industrial production growth rate:

5% (2000 est.)

Electricity – production:

3.641 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity – production by source:

fossil fuel:  45.65%

hydro:  41.01%

nuclear:  0%

other:  13.34% (1999)

Electricity – consumption:

3.638 billion kWh (1999)

Electricity – exports:

208 million kWh (1999)

Electricity – imports:

460 million kWh (1999)

Agriculture – products:

coffee, sugar, corn, rice, beans, oilseed, cotton, sorghum; shrimp; beef, dairy products


$2.8 billion (f.o.b., 2000)

Exports – commodities:

offshore assembly exports, coffee, sugar, shrimp, textiles, chemicals, electricity

Exports – partners:

US 63%, Guatemala 11%, Honduras 7%, Costa Rica 4% (1999)


$4.6 billion (f.o.b., 2000)

Imports – commodities:

raw materials, consumer goods, capital goods, fuels, foodstuffs, petroleum, electricity

Imports – partners:

US 52%, Guatemala 9%, Mexico 6%, Costa Rica 3% (1999)

Debt – external:

$4.1 billion (2000 est.)

Economic aid – recipient:

total $252 million; $57 million from US (1999 est.)


Salvadoran colon (SVC); US dollar (USD)

Currency code:


Exchange rates:

Salvadoran colones per US dollar – 8.755 (fixed rate since 1993)

Fiscal year:

calendar year


El Salvador


Telephones – main lines in use:

380,000 (1998)

Telephones – mobile cellular:

40,163 (1997)

Telephone system:

general assessment:  NA

domestic:  nationwide microwave radio relay system

international:  satellite earth station – 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); connected to Central American Microwave System

Radio broadcast stations:

AM 61 (plus 24 repeaters), FM 30, shortwave 0 (1998)


2.75 million (1997)

Television broadcast stations:

5 (1997)


600,000 (1990)

Internet country code:


Internet Service Providers (ISPs):

4 (2000)

Internet users:

40,000 (2000)

El Salvador



total:  562 km

narrow gauge:  562 km 0.914-m gauge

note:  length of route which is operational is reduced to 283 km by disuse and lack of maintainance


total:  10,029 km

paved:  1,986 km (including 327 km of expressways)

unpaved:  8,043 km (1997)


Rio Lempa partially navigable

Ports and harbors:

Acajutla, Puerto Cutuco, La Libertad, La Union, Puerto El Triunfo

Merchant marine:

none (2000 est.)


83 (2000 est.)

Airports – with paved runways:

total:  4

over 3,047 m:  1

1,524 to 2,437 m:  1

914 to 1,523 m:  2 (2000 est.)

Airports – with unpaved runways:

total:  79

914 to 1,523 m:  17

under 914 m:  62 (2000 est.)


1 (2000 est.)

El Salvador


Military branches:

Army, Navy, Air Force

Military manpower – military age:

18 years of age

Military manpower – availability:

males age 15-49:  1,464,898 (2001 est.)

Military manpower – fit for military service:

males age 15-49:  929,263 (2001 est.)

Military manpower – reaching military age annually:

males:  68,103 (2001 est.)

Military expenditures – dollar figure:

$112 million (FY99)

Military expenditures – percent of GDP:

0.7% (FY99)

El Salvador

   Transnational Issues

Disputes – international:

with respect to the maritime boundary in the Golfo de Fonseca, the ICJ referred to the line determined by the 1900 Honduras-Nicaragua Mixed Boundary Commission and advised that some tripartite resolution among El Salvador, Honduras and Nicaragua likely would be required

Illicit drugs:

transshipment point for cocaine; marijuana produced for local consumption; domestic drug abuse on the rise

Thanks to: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/us.htmlMap of El Salvador


El Salvador



El Salvador es una República situada en Centroamérica, limitada a norte y al este por Honduras, al sur con el Pacífico, al oeste con Guatemala y al este con Nicaragua (Golfo de Fonseca de por medio). Si le interesa ubicarlo más exactamente, el país se extiende entre los 13°09′ y 14°27′ latitud Norte y los 87°41′ y 90°08′ longitud Oeste. Su superficie aproximada es de 21041 km2. Es un país de clima tropical con básicamente dos estaciones: la época lluviosa (de mayo a octubre) y la seca (de noviembre a Abril). Su población es de aproximadamente 5.0 millones de habitantes.

Se caracteriza por tener la llamada “cadena volcánica” formada por más de 20 volcanes,  siendo uno de los más famosos el volcán de Izalco (en la galería fotográfica hay fotografías de él). En la antigüedad se le conocía como el “Faro del Pacífico” ya que debido a sus constantes erupciones era fácilmente utilizado por navegantes para orientarse en los mares. La presencia de estos volcanes ha provocado varios sismos de considerable magnitud con daños graves a la población a lo largo de la historia. Dicho sea de paso, las causas de los sismos de la zona centroamericana no sólo se deben a la presencia de estos volcanes, sino también al movimiento de las placas tectónicas, fenómeno que se conoce como “Subducción”.


Una de las características más notables del país es que tiene una larga zona costera con playas que se constituyen entre las más hermosas de Centro América. De ahí que algunos Guatemaltecos, Hondureños y otros extranjeros vengan a pasar sus vacaciones a  nuestras costas.

El país, a pesar de ser el más pequeño de Centro América, posee gran cantidad de ríos que recorren la totalidad del país, siendo el más importante el Río Lempa, que se encarga de abastecer de energía eléctrica a gran parte del país, ya que en él se encuentran  importantes presas hidroeléctricas a lo largo de sus aproximadamente 350 kilómetros de longitud.

Existe una rica vegetación propia de los trópicos: ceibas, amates, mangles, cocoteros, palmas, maquilishuat, etc. Hay además aproximadamente 200 variedades de orquídeas, abundantes flores de atractivo coloridos, y una gran variedad de aves (más de 400), con unas 17 especies diferentes de colibríes, que pueden ser observados en el Parque Nacional Cerro Verde. En el Salvador, como en muchos otros países Latinoamericanos, también existe el problema de la deforestación, para lo que se han establecido áreas de conservación como reservas ecológicas y parques nacionales. Los más importantes son el Cerro Verde, el Parque Deininger, El Imposible, Nancuchiname, La Laguna del Jocotal y el Bosque Nebuloso de Montecristo.


Las ciudades más importantes de El Salvador son:

-Santa Ana : 451,620 Hab.
-San Miguel : 380,442 Hab.
-Ahuachapán : 260,563 Hab.
-Sonsonate : 354,641 Hab.
-Usulután : 317,079 Hab.

El sol brilla en El Salvador casi los 360 días del año y su temperatura promedio anual es de 28°C (80°F). Es este clima agradable uno de los mayores atractivos que ofrece el país a sus visitantes. Es ideal para disfrutar de actividades al aire libre como el tennis, surfing, esquí acuático, pesca, natación , ecotursimo, etc. La Costa del Sol (una de las playas más visistadas) cuenta con excelentes hoteles que pueden satisfacer los gustos más exigentes: el Hotel Tesoro Beach, Izalco Cabaña Club, las Suites Jaltepeque, etc. Además se pueden visitar zonas arqueológicas (como Joya de Cerén, Ruinas de Tazumal, Ruinas de San Andrés, Sitio de Quelepa y Cara Sucia, y otras),  iglesias coloniales, etc. En San Salvador se pueden encontrar excelentes hoteles como: Hotel El Salvador, Hotel Camino Real, Hotel Presidente, Hotel Terraza, Hotel Siesta, Hotel Alameda, Hotel Princess, etc. También existen las “casas de hospedaje”, en las que se puede alquilar cuartos en un ambiente casi “familiar”; éstas están dirigidas a las personas que sólo pasarán una o dos noches en la capital y no están dispuestos a pagar grandes sumas en hoteles lujosos. En la capital, los centros nocturnos ofrecen entretenimiento variado en night clubs, cines, discotecas, etc. Muchos restaurantes ofrecen cocina internacional o comida  rápida, platos típicos salvadoreños y una gran variedad de mariscos.